Birth Order And Personality

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After Frank Sulloway published his popular studies on how birth order affects individuals (1996 & 1999), many researchers delved into the field to determine how personality is affected by birth order. General hypotheses state that most first-born children are more intelligent than those born later, and that the youngest children are more social. Many more similar hypotheses exist in the field, and through several researches, more information on the actual relationship between birth order and personality is available. These researches and experiments give insight into the psychological significance of birth order. In their paper titled “Examining the Effects of Birth Order on Personality,” (2015) authors Julia M. Rohrer, Boris Egloff, and Stefan C. Schmukle state, “According to Sulloway’s theory, firstborns, who are physically superior to their siblings at a young age, are more likely to show dominant behavior and therefore become less agreeable. Later-borns…tend to rely on social support and…show more content…
Participants in this study were given a questionnaire about birth order and included 391 undergraduate students from a large Midwestern university in the United States: 163 first-born, 72 middle-born, and 156 last-born individuals. Through their study, the researchers were able to show that there was little to no effect on personality through maternal closeness, maternal rejection, or parental identification. This means that although in some families it may seem like changes in parental interaction with each child leads to changes in personality, overall there is no evidence supporting the hypothesis (Dunkel et al.,

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