The Black Death was one of the most life-changing pandemics in history. It was first discovered 550 years later in the 1800s by Alexandre Yersin, a french biologist. In his honor, the plague was named Yersinia Pestis. The plague traveled in two major ways. Yersin discovered that it traveled by infected fleas; the flea would attempt to feed on a human or animal and would then regurgitate the disease into the new host, further spreading the illness. Urban areas across Europe were populous with rats, which were one of the main hosts of the plague. These rodents spread the Black Death throughout cities in days. The unaffected still were not safe if they did not come in contact with an infected flea or rat. The plague also traveled pneumonically, or through the air. It caused large boils full of blood and pus, which would pop and spread. Another symptom was coughing, which was one of the many ways of proliferation. The disease eventually spread throughout Europe and killed a third of it’s population. It’s wrath caused many shortages, loss in hope, riots, and even some good things, such as many changes in art, science, and education. Therefore, the Black Death was one of the most life-changing pandemics in history.
One of the most documented Christian responses to the plague was the rise of the flagellants. A spontaneous and unsanctioned movement, the flagellants sought to ward off the plague by physically punishing themselves for the sins that had caused God to send the Black Death to punish them (Tuchman, 1978, p. 125). Flagellant processions would typically remain on the move, marching from town to town, while twice a day beating themselves with whips and other instruments until they drew blood (Slack, 1988, p. 439). They were also known for their singing of religious songs while marching and whipping themselves, which ran counter to the official Catholic Church position and caused church officials no small amount of trouble (Lerner, 1981, p. 535-36). The official reasoning by the Catholic Church was that the flagellant movement was an unnecessary and wrong reaction to the Black Death, since there were equal death rates among Christians and Jews. The flagellants were also part of a Christian movement known as premillennialism (Lerner, 1981, 534). The extensive deaths in Europe cause many Christians to believe that the second coming of Christ was near, which would result in the end of the world. This interest in the events that were prophesied to happen just before the end of the world ran very high during this time. This interest was also a large influence responsible for the rise of groups like the flagellants (Lerner, 1981, 538).
Diseases have always been a threat to humans, all throughout history. One of the most destructive disease outbreaks in history was the plague outbreak which peaked in 1346 to 1353, in Europe, commonly known as the Black Death. This plague outbreak was extremely deadly and killed 30-60% of the European population at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak is commonly believed to have been caused by the bubonic plague, but modern evidence suggests that the Black Death was caused by pneumonic plague, a much more contagious and deadly infection.
Sickness times a thousand equals the Black Death. In our world, many disasters have occurred, causing terrible damage emotionally, physically, and mentally. However, I believe that the Black Death is the worst disaster to have occurred throughout our world’s history. It all started in 1348, when trading ships from different countries around Europe settled at the port of Messina, Sicily. Once the ship dropped their anchor many of their sailors were found dead, and the few surviving carried with them the deadly disease so dangerous that it would quickly lead to death. Scientists researched and concluded that the disease started from Central Asia (Mongolia), when fleas on rats boarded the many ships from Europe. The fleas got on the sailors’ skin and started killing them instantly. However, many thought that the disease had originated from the Far East and was spread along many major trade routes. When the people of Sicily finally started finding out what was causing the death, they closed their port and trading system with other countries. (Wikipedia) The ships were forced to anchor somewhere else in other countries, which allowed the disease to spread even more quickly. I believe that the Black Plague was a disastrous event that affected all aspects and the future of European and Central Asian society, their political and economic environment, and their future advancement to medicine.
In the late Middle Ages the worst evil known to man terrorized Europe. People were dropping dead everywhere and there was no place to put them. This vicious culprit was known as the Black Plague. During the 14th century in Europe millions of people died from the plague and the plague brought about great change. Before the plague there was peace and prosperity in the High Middle Ages and after the plague things were different. Historians consider the outbreak of the Black Plague a watershed moment because of great social, religious and economical changes.
Some people turned to extremism. For example, the Flagellants, based in Central and Northern Europe, believed that the plague was sent upon the people due to their moral corruption disobeying of God’s will. The extremists traveled from village to village, and whipped themselves in hopes of repenting for the sins of those around them. The population, noticing how many people were dying, and believing it to be caused by God’s unhappiness, began to believe that the clergy had failed them in showing citizens how to be pious. They also saw the clergy’s deaths as proof of the failure of the clergy, as God was angry with them as well. This anger and distrust of the clergy carried on to the next great crisis of Europe, the Great Schism.
The Black Plague effected Europe religiously because they lost followers of the church so the numbers decreased which led to empty churches. “Population before the Plague was 75,000,000 and after the plague the numbers decreased rapidly by 1351 the population was 51,160,00” (Doc 2). Some of the town or community lost faith in their God because they thought that God should’ve answered their prayers when they were asking for their family members to get better and to heal or make things and people better around them. During this time period people were big believers in God, the people believed that god was powerful, but then after the plague their opinions were mistaken because the church didn’t help at all to make anyone better many people died because of this
Religiously, the plague affected people’s beliefs in the Catholic Church. During the plague, a self torturing cult known as the Flagellants broke out and traveled from town to town whipping themselves. Hoping that they could recreate the Passion of Christ. They felt as if by doing this, they would absolve themselves from their sins and thus avoid the plague (“The Plague” Documentary). These people would today be known as a cult like group, but were soon outlawed by Pope Clement VI in 1349 (The
Population went down. When the Black Death got out it is spreading until there was no more people to get. When suddenly Christians and Muslims had different ways to try to prevent it. They both had different religions to practice.
The Plague or ¨Black Death¨ was a virus that spread across Europe killing about 60% of the population. The plague's origin was at the time unknown and this brought about many questions. At this time, people did not have basic necessities such as proper hygiene and medicine. Therefore there was fear, superstitions as well as conspiracy, and there were also some who realized that they could gain from the deaths of those around them.
Edward, I highly agree with your opinion. The epidemic Black Death that struck Europe in the fourteenth century eradicated almost half of the population but also had a major impact on the further development of the European society. The sudden depopulation caused by the increase of the disease, brought about important economic changes. The peasants were forced to stay on their land and became tenant farmers due to the shortage of cheap labor. Moreover, the big cities had shortages of food and other products as workers died in the fields and crops were abandoned. All that time of death and misfortune also brought something positive. The labor shortage that left behind the Black Death provided an incentive for innovation, breaking the existing
The first epidemic disease discussed by the author was the Black Death and how it impacted western Europe in the mid 1300’s. The disease started its first mysterious outbreak near the Black Sea in what is now southern Ukraine; the victims that were affected by it suffered from headaches, staggered when they tried to walk and felt weak. Their armpits would swell by the third day and their hearts would beat fast while trying to pump blood through the swollen tissue. The victim's nervous system started to collapse causing pain and bizarre arm and leg movements, as the victim’s death got closer the mouth gaped open and the skin started turning black from internal bleeding. The victim’s last day usually came on the fifth day after being infected with the disease.
The Black Death took place between 1315 and 1317, this Bubonic plague killed 10 percent The Catholic church failed to explain the cause of the Black Death, many church officials refused to treat the sick; leaving dying people behind. Citizens were desperate during the disaster, some had given up on life. They began living without rules and restrictions, they abandoned themselves into sexual and alcoholic indulgences. People lost their faith in Christianity, some extremists began to blame the Jews for causing the plague. An outbreak of anti-Semitism took place during the Black Death which caused the destruction over 60 major Jewish communities by the year of 1531. The plague also gave birth to a group of extreme believers called the flagellants in Germany who whipped themselves for forgiveness from God. The Black Death damaged the reputation of the church and many people lost faith in God.
Many people played an important role in the fight and the successes achieved by TAG. In the documentary “How to Survive a Plague” shows about the different strategies that each activist took to reach their goals, to end the stigma and acquire they right against HIV/AIDS. One activist that I really admire is Peter Staley. Staley led the ACT UP’s organization campaign to force “Burroughs Wellcome,” to lower the price of AZT drugs since it was the most expensive drug in history. Moreover, he was one of the most remarkable leaders of ACT UP and over time he becomes one of the TAG founders. I believe Peter Staley was one of the bravest activist ever because him and other three activist took over the Burroughs Wellcome Co., and boycotted on the