Blood Pressure Regulation By Christopher B. Evans

2294 WordsOct 20, 201410 Pages
Blood Pressure Regulation Christopher B. Evans AHPH-545, Salisbury University Introduction Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels and usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. Blood pressure is routinely regulated in order to direct appropriate amounts of nutrients and oxygen to specific tissue types. For example, when exercise requires additional supplies of oxygen to skeletal muscles, blood flow to these muscles increases, while blood flow to the digestive organs decreases. Blood pressure can be altered in numerous ways, such as varying cardiac output by changing heart rate or stroke volume, or by changing the resistance to blood flow in the blood vessels. Altering peripheral resistance in the blood vessels is achieved by vasodilation or vasoconstriction, or also by changes in blood viscosity or blood vessel length. The cardiac center stimulates cardiac output by increasing heart rate and contractility. These nerve impulses are transmitted over sympathetic cardiac nerves. The cardiac center inhibits cardiac output by decreasing heart rate. These nerve impulses are transmitted over parasympathetic vagus nerves. The cardiovascular center obtains information about the body’s status through baroreceptors and chemoreceptors. Baroreceptors are sensory neurons that monitor arterial pressure. Major baroreceptors are located in the carotid sinus, the aortic arch, and the right

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