Bone Mineral Density And Osteoporosis

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Bone Mineral Density – Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterised by a low bone mineral density (BMD) and deterioration of bone tissue and strength. This in turn increases bone fragility and its susceptibility to fracture and other injuries. Bone remodelling is the process of continuous bone reabsorption and rebuilding; however, osteoporosis occurs when there is not enough bone formation and/or an excessive amount of bone reabsorption. Many non-invasive techniques exist to measure BMD, all which play an important role in the diagnosis and progression of osteoporosis.

Anatomical Tool 1: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS)
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a recently discovered
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T. T., Khan, N. C., Lam, N. T., Mai, L. B., Le, D. N., Nhung, B. T., . . . Yamamoto, S. 2005). QUS was used due to its low cost, high accessibly and no exposure to radiation. After the study was completed it was found that QUS was an effective way to measure this large group with minimal consequences.

Study Three:
One factor that had not been investigated was whether the variables of QUS were as affected by clinical risk factors as axial BMD measurements obtained by using the DXA method. A study was conducted to compare the calcaneal QUS and axial BMD T and Z scores in a large group of women (specifically 1115 pre- and postmenopausal women). Some of these women had no clinical risk factors whilst others had one or more risk factors for osteoporosis. (Frost, M. L., Blake, G. M., & Fogelman, I. (2001)). They investigated measurements at the calcaneus using QUS and at the lumbar spine and hip using DXA and found that the variable of QUS were affected to the same extent as axial BMD measurements using the DXA method. This important finding could become critical in the standardisation of QUS in clinical practice.

Anatomical Tool 2: Duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
Duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) utilises x-rays of two difference energies to produce an image of the region of interest. This image is projected and then used to calculate and determine
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