Lyme disease, or lyme borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease transmitted by ticks. Lyme disease is considered an emerging infectious disease because it’s incidence has increased over the past 20 years, and it was not identified until 1975 in the United States (CITE). Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States. Lyme disease causes symptoms similar to that of influenza, and includes headache, chills, fever, lethargy, and muscle pain in the initial stages. A bulls-eye shaped rash at the site of the tick bite can also occur in those infected, but not all infected persons develop the rash. The rash typically develops three to thirty days after the person is bitten. Later
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type. The most common sign of infection is an expanding area of redness, known as erythema migrans, that begins at the site of a tick bite about a week after it has occurred. The rash is typically neither itchy nor painful. About 25% of people do not develop a rash. Other early symptoms may include fever, headache, and feeling tired. If untreated, symptoms may include loss of the ability to move one or both sides of the face, joint pains, severe headaches with neck stiffness, or heart palpitations, among others. Months to years later, repeated episodes of joint pain and swelling may occur. Occasionally, people develop shooting pains or tingling in their arms and legs. Despite appropriate treatment, about 10 to 20% of people also develop joint pains, have memory problems, and feel tired much of the time.
Lyme disease is a multisystem, inflammatory illness. It is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. It is a vector-borne infection (which means it is spread directly from one host to another) transmitted specifically through the bite of an infected tick (Mayo Clinic: Lyme Disease - Definition, Aug. 27, 2015).
Lyme borreliosis or Lyme disease can be devastating both physically and mentally for victims. The disease is transmitted by a vector, specifically a tick, which infects their host by biting and infecting them with pathological spirochete bacteria known as Borrelia burgdorferi (Muschart & Blommaert, 2015). There are several species of Borrelia globally, and as a group, the bacteria are referred to as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Pearson, 2015). The disease originated from, Lyme Connecticut, of which it was named, after a patient was mistakenly diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis when the cause of their disease was B. burgdorferi or Lyme disease (Snow, 2013). Lyme disease is classified as one of the most common and growing vector-born disease in the United States as well as Europe (Snow, 2013). Understanding how Lyme disease progresses through the body as well as the disease’s signs and symptoms are essential to understanding how to treat the disease and stop it from spreading throughout the body with destructive results. With a disease as potentially devastating as Lyme disease, early treatment is required for a better outcome (Pearson, 2015). This research paper will discuss the pathophysiology of three Lyme conditions known as Lyme arthritis, Lyme neuroborreliosis, and Lyme carditis and provide an overview of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease and treatments, and how to prevent infection.
Lyme disease has been identified as an infection surrounded by complications, starting from its discovery to diagnosis. The Lyme infection was discovered first during the mid-1970, following the attribution of juvenile arthritis outbreak to this disease near Old Lyme, Connecticut. The naming of the disease was established in 1977, although the complications of the causative agent lasted an additional five years, after which medical scientists identified the deer tick midgut Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete as the supposed causative agent (Lyme Research Alliance, n.d.).
While most people don’t realize it, one of the most weakening diseases of the world can often be found crawling around in the shrubs and tall grasses of one’s backyard. It does not mean that only dirty yards have this disease but, it is found in every North Americans backyard. The disease is called Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a fairly common disease that often goes misdiagnosed in many cases. There are many misunderstandings about this disease.
Lyme disease has emerged as the most common vector borne infectious disease in the United States and has presented a growing challenge to public health officials over the past three decades. The infection represents a significant disease burden to the population of the United States with nearly 30,000 new cases diagnosed per year and an estimated additional 270,000 annual incident cases that go unreported. The disease results from a bacterial infection with the spirochete bacteria B. burgdorferi. This bacterial agent is transmitted to humans from the bite of a tick and is most commonly associated Ixodes species blacklegged ticks. These ticks represent the largest genus of the family Ixodidae and mainly inhabit temperate forest or grassland
Lyme disease was discovered in the 1970’s, as any other disease was, by a large number of cases, with patients having the same symptoms. In Lyme, Connecticut, a doctor was having patients who were all suffering from the same symptoms that made patients become debilitated. There were so many cases that the doctor marked it as an unknown disease. It wasn’t until later in the 1980’s that there were more widespread cases throughout the north-east. Lyme disease is becoming a serious problem in the north-east and especially in New York State, given the drastic increase of cases. Without treatment Lyme disease can result in blindness and in severe cases, death.
Although most people don’t realize it, one of the world’s most debilitating diseases can often be found in their very own backyard. Lurking in the tall grass or dangling from the end of a branch, just waiting for you to walk by. Barley bigger than a poppy seed, they’re almost impossible to notice. But these tiny black-legged ticks are no joke and if you’ve been bitten, you’re at risk. These nasty little ticks pack a big punch, carrying a very serious life altering disease. This disease, which can change a life forever is known as Lyme disease.
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is typically spread by ticks or most commonly known as deer ticks. It's estimated that over 300,000 people are diagnosed with lyme disease every year. Lyme disease is easily misdiagnosed because its symptoms are closely related to other conditions. This disease could affect any part of the body , like the brain , nervous system , muscle and joints and the heart. Lyme disease can commonly mistaken for a number of other diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome , fibromyalgia , multiple sclerosis , and various other ones. Signs of early lyme disease feel like the flu and have the same symptoms.
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a spirochete, a corkscrew-shaped bacterium called Borrelia burgodorferi. Lyme disease is primarily transmitted through tick bites, there has been no reported cases of human to human transfer of Lyme disease. Ixodes ticks, also known as deer ticks are the typical carriers of the Lyme disease. The ticks can most primarily be found in wooded and grassy areas. Due to the fact these ticks are only the size of a poppy seed they usually go undetected when they bite. Once the tick is attached to the skin it can feed for several days; the longer the tick is attached the more likely Lyme disease will be transmitted. Lyme disease can affect any organ of the body including the brain, nervous system, muscles, joints, and even the heart. In some cases, if a pregnant woman develops Lyme disease it can pass on to the unborn child and in some cases stillbirth has occurred due to the disease.
Lyme disease can be a very serious disease if not treated early enough. The most important way to keep from getting the disease is prevention. Education is the key to prevention. The only way to contract the disease is to be bitten by a tick that is carrying the bacteria Borrelia Burgoloferi. By educating the public on the facts of the disease and how it is transmitted will greatly lower the number of cases each year.
I chose to do my research paper on Lyme disease. During my research, I found a lot of interesting facts about Lyme disease. The disease is caused by bacteria, called Borrelia burgdorferi, which is only transmitted to humans when they are bitten by an infected tick. Lyme disease was first discovered in 1975, in Lyme, Connecticut, after a group of children were diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. This eventually led them to discover the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi. The disease was given its name in 1982, after the town of Lyme, Connecticut. According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne illness in the United States. In 2014, it was the fifth most common Nationally Notifiable disease. Lyme disease is most prevalent in the northeast and upper Midwest.
Lyme disease is a spirochetal infection, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes ricinus complex ticks. It is brought about essentially by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States. Lyme disease was initially perceived clinically in 1977 as "Lyme arthritis" amid investigations of a group of youngsters in Connecticut who were thought to have adolescent rheumatoid joint inflammation. The etiology of Lyme disease was found to be a spirochete in the mid - 1980s. The rate of Lyme disease and the geographic conveyance of cases in the United States have expanded consistently from that point forward (Beard, 2016).
Lyme disease is a serious infection that comes from a tick bite. Lyme disease is initially treated with antibiotics for 2-4 weeks. If the disease doesn't clear up after this time, it is suggested that these patients have chronic Lyme disease. These patients will still have the symptoms of Lyme disease after treatment is completed. These symptoms include extreme fatigue, pain in your muscles and joints as well as aches in your body.