Bowlby Attachment Theory Essay

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ATTACHMENT THEORY- PSYCHOLOGY. ‘Mother’s love in infancy and childhood is as important to mental health as vitamins and proteins are to physical health’. Bowlby (1969) defined attachment as a two-way deep emotional bond which connects a person to another, where they depend on each other for sense of security across time and space. Kagan et al. (1978) also defined attachment as an ‘intense emotional relationship which is specific to two people, that endures over time and in which prolonged separation from the partner is accompanied by stress and sorrow’. According to Bowlby (1969), infants are genetically programmed to form attachment towards their mothers in a way that helps in ensuring their survival such as crying, sucking, cuddling and…show more content…
Which are proximity maintenance, safe haven, secure base and distress at separation. The first stage is proximity maintenance, where infants desire to be close to their caregiver with whom they share an attachment. Because of this, infants endeavour to be near their caregiver as possible since they enjoy their company. Also, attachments create a safe haven, where infants depend on their attachment figures for care and comfort when feeling threaten or in distress. They cry when they don’t like something and stops crying when they have what they want. However, attachment figures also provide a secure base for discovery. This is very necessary during childhood. This stage provides infants with the avenue to explore and learn by themselves whiles knowing they can return to attachment figures for safety. Lastly, infants experience separation distress when separated from their attachment figure. For example, infants (kids) become upset and cry when their mothers leave to work. Bowlby proposed four sequence of phases over which attachment in infants occurs. The first phase is the pre-attachment phase (birth to 6 weeks).Infants displays a built in signals like crying, bring infants into close proximity with their caregivers. Infants identify their mother’s or caregiver’s voice or smell and they are calmed. Attachments starts to formed when babies are smiled
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