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Brain Disorder (ADHD)

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ADHD is a brain disorder which is seen in both children and adults and is manifested by difficulties in attention, and hyper-active impulsive tendencies. Previously, DSM-IV used a 18-item list to determine presence of symptoms with the presence of 6 or more, having persisted at least 6 months being the criteria for diagnosis (DSM-IV, 1994). DSM-V has retained this 18-item list, but has lowered the threshold for requirement in those over the age of 17 from 6 to 5 (DSM-V, 2013). The new changes are also reflected in an increase of age-of-onset criteria from 7 years to 12 years (DSM-V, 2013). In addition, for DSM-V, requirements of symptom effects on daily life has been relaxed, making it easier for patients to meet a full-diagnostic criteria…show more content…
The hyperactive and impulsivity symptoms include: fidgeting with hands, talks excessively, unable to play or engage in leisure activities quietly and difficulties awaiting in turn (DSM-IV, 1994). These items have been retained in DSM-V. However, because DSM-IV was criticized for it’s poor criteria set in diagnosing adults (Roberts & Milich 2013), exemplars have been changed to include more adult-suitable behaviours, such as in one item, DSM-IV notes “often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or home-work)”. Whereas in DSM-V, this has been altered to “Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework; for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers)”. There is also evidence that there is significant instability in the appearance of symptoms, especially as children mature into adolescent and adulthood. Hence, it is not surprising for children to become less hyperactive-impulsive as they become older, and becoming predominantly inattentive (Roberts
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