Brand Image

10222 Words41 Pages
How to measure brand image: a reasoned review
Luca Cian, Ross Business School, University of Michigan, USA*
The aim of this paper is to review the most important tools and methods used to analyse and measure the brand image. Both traditional and innovative measurements have been considered, including attitude scales, Q-Sort, Natural Grouping, Kelly Repertory Grid, Laddering, Benefit Chain, Projective Techniques, Brand Personality, and Brand Narration. Considering the number of tools presented, the focus is not on their comparison (impossible with so many tools), but on their presentation in a unique paper. This review represents a useful vademecum for both practitioners and researchers in the fields of marketing and economic psychology
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Image, in this way, can be seen as a socially influenced subjective representation of an external object (Coulter & Zaltman, 1994; Zaltman & Coulter, 1995). Image construct is composed of emotional and functional elements (Kennedy, 1977; Palacio et al., 2002); and the emotional side seems to be the prevalent one (Palacio et al., 2002). In the consumer, advertising and semiotic literature, the importance of the symbolic dimension of the brand image has recently been underlined (e.g., Ballantyne et al., 2006; Cian & Cervai, 2011; Heath & Scott, 1997; Hogg & Banister, 2001; Meenaghan, 1995; Semprini, 2006). PART II: TECHNIQUES TO MEASURE BRAND IMAGE The scales and tools reported and described are listed as follows: Attitude Scales, Q-Sort, Natural Grouping, Kelly Repertory Grid, Laddering, Benefit Chain, Projective Techniques, Brand Personality, and Brand Narration. 1 Attitude Scale The Attitude scale consists of a set of statements concerning the subject’s attitude related to a brand. The assumption is that the brand image is an

Cian How to measure the brand image attitude that can be measured with the Likert scale or a semantic differential scale (the most used scale in the Marketing literature). The former is
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