Breast Cancer Staging At Cancer And The International Union For Cancer Control Classification System

2132 Words Aug 24th, 2014 9 Pages
Breast Cancer Staging “Breast cancer is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control classification system for tumor, nodes, and metastases (TNM)” (Esserman, 2013). The first part of the tumor staging system, as seen in Table 2, assesses that of the primary tumor itself by means of clinical breast exam and imaging studies and is represented by the letter “T” on the staging table. Mammogram is an essential part of assessing the primary tumor, however other modalities previously discussed including ultrasound and MRI is often essential (Esserman, 2013). Evaluating lymph nodes surrounding the breast is a crucial component of staging and is thought to be one of the most important …show more content…
Radiation therapy. This treatment modality is made up of 5-7 weeks of five daily doses of radiation therapy and is currently the standard of care for stage I, stage II, and most stage III cancer following surgical resection (Giuliano, 2014). Studies show that radiotherapy after surgery can improve recurrence rates as well as survival in patients that have tumors equal to or greater than 5 centimeters with or without positive lymph nodes (Giuliano, 2014). Systemic therapy. The primary goal of systemic therapy is to “kill cancer cells that have escaped the breast and axillary lymph nodes as micrometastases before they become macrometastases (ie, stage IV cancer)” (Giuliano, 2014). Systemic therapy improves survival and is advocated for most patients with curable breast cancer, decreasing the chance of recurrence by about 30% while hormonal modulation decreases the risk of recurrence by 40–50% (for hormone receptor–positive cancer) (Giuliano, 2014).
Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be given before or after surgery. It is becoming increasing popular to give chemotherapy prior to surgery due to the fact that many of the larger tumors can be shrunk ultimately making patients that would otherwise require major surgery candidates for a lumpectomy (Usatine, 2013).
When chemotherapy is begun post-surgical resection of the

More about Breast Cancer Staging At Cancer And The International Union For Cancer Control Classification System

Open Document