Breast Cancer Staging At Cancer And The International Union For Cancer Control Classification System

2132 Words Aug 24th, 2014 9 Pages
Breast Cancer Staging “Breast cancer is staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union for Cancer Control classification system for tumor, nodes, and metastases (TNM)” (Esserman, 2013). The first part of the tumor staging system, as seen in Table 2, assesses that of the primary tumor itself by means of clinical breast exam and imaging studies and is represented by the letter “T” on the staging table. Mammogram is an essential part of assessing the primary tumor, however other modalities previously discussed including ultrasound and MRI is often essential (Esserman, 2013). Evaluating lymph nodes surrounding the breast is a crucial component of staging and is thought to be one of the most important aspects in relation to prognosis. The letter “N” on the staging table represents this component. It is also of utmost importance to evaluate the nodes by radiologic means because physical examination alone is indeterminate of metastasis. The last component is metastasis, represented by an “M” on the staging table. Often, many patients with breast cancer are diagnosed with the cancer confined to the breast and without node involvement. In that case, those patients are not often evaluated or staged for the presence of metastatic disease. However, those that do present with signs and symptoms of metastatic disease or with locally advanced cancer (T3 or greater, N2 or N3, M0) are evaluated for this component (Esserman, 2013).
Adjuvant…

More about Breast Cancer Staging At Cancer And The International Union For Cancer Control Classification System

Open Document