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Bricks

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Characterisation of Mineral Wastes, Resources and Processing technologies – Integrated waste management for the production of construction material

WRT 177 / WR0115

Industry Sector Study:

Heavy Ceramic (Brick)

September 2007 Funded by:

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Industrial sector study on the utilisation of alternative materials in the manufacture of mineral wool insulation

Compiled by

Dr Evaggelia Petavratzi & John Barton, School of Civil Engineering University of Leeds

(DEFRA Project Code WRT_177) September 2007

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Contents
1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................. 4 2 The brick manufacturing sector in the
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A schematic representation of brick clay resources in Great Britain is presented in Figure 1.

The market of bricks presented significant changes with the introduction of concrete blocks as the latter replaced common bricks in construction. This resulted to a shift of the market in producing facing bricks, used for aesthetic purposes (Figure 2). The use of ‘facing bricks’ accounts for over 90% of demand (BGS, 2007) (DTI construction statistics) The production of facing bricks appears quite stable for the last seven years. Common and engineering bricks are still produced, but in

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much lower quantities (Figure 2), whereas the manufacturing of facing bricks have expanded significantly and currently is described by several products with different colours, textures, surfaces and sizes. Clay tiles have also been affected by the introduction of concrete. Ceramic pipemaking has declined considerably due to competition from concrete and plastic pipes. The only products that show an increase in demand are roofing tiles, which have become more popular recently (BGS, 2007).

Bricks are produced either by extrusion or by the ‘soft-mud’ process. Extrusion is the commonest option. Two schematic diagrams describing the manufacturing processes are presented in Figure 3 and
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