Brief Historical Development and Contributions of Chemistry for Modern Civilization

4507 Words Nov 18th, 2006 19 Pages
Brief Historical Development and Contributions of Chemistry for Modern Civilization

Introduction: As defined by Oxford Dictionary, Chemistry is the scientific study of the structure of substances, how they react when combined or in contact with one another and how they behave under different conditions . In other words, Chemistry is the study of the materials and substances of the world in which we live. The materials, which make up the earth, sea and air, are called raw materials. These include many importance natural resources like ores, rocks, coal, and gas.
According to me, Chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of matter. Chemistry answers questions like, What kind of stuff is this sample made of? What does the
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They thought that metals in the earth sought to become more and more perfect and thus gradually changed into gold. It seemed to them that they should be able to carry out the same process more rapidly in their own workshops and so artificially to transmute common metals into gold. Beginning about 100 AD this idea dominated the minds of the philosophers as well as the metalworkers, and a large number of treatises were written on the art of transmutation, which became known as alchemy.
At almost the same time, and probably independently, a similar alchemy arose in China. Here, also, the aim was to make gold, although not because of the monetary value of the metal. The Chinese believed that gold was a medicine that could confer long life or even immortality on anyone who consumed it. As did the Egyptians, the Chinese gained practical chemical knowledge from incorrect theories.
In the 7th and 8th centuries Arab conquerors spread Islamic culture over much of Asia Minor, North Africa, and Spain. The caliphs at Baghdâd became active patrons of science and learning. The Syriac translation of Greek texts were again translated, this time into Arabic, and along with the rest of Greek learning the ideas and practice of alchemy once again flourished.
A great intellectual reawakening began in western Europe in the 11th century. This was stimulated in part by the cultural