CF multi-disciplinary team also undertakes clinical research of the condition, where new treatment and therapies are
Nearly 1 in every 30 Americans are a carrier of the recessive gene that leads to CF (About Cystic Fibrosis, n.d.). Although CF is a life-threatening condition, through the advancement of treatments and care, there has been a steady increase in life expectancy and improvement in the quality of life. The current mean age of survival is now 40. Although that does not seem very high, sixty years ago, a child diagnosed with CF did not survive childhood (About Cystic Fibrosis, n.d.). CF is a complex disease, where the types and severity of symptoms can differ widely from person to person. Symptoms may include fatigue, salty-tasting skin, persistent cough with phlegm, wheezing and shortness of breath, lung infections, and poor growth and weight loss (Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms, Causes & Risk Factors, 2018). Many different factors, such as the age of diagnosis, can affect an individual's health and the course of the
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease, explicitly an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which primarily affects the lungs and digestive system. An estimated 30,000 children and adults in the United States have CF (Song, Chiu, & Yoon, 2012). According to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, “In the 1950s, few children with CF lived to attend elementary school”("Cystic Fibrosis Foundation," 2014, p. 1). It is important to recognize the progress that has been made on diagnosing CF, as well as the numerous treatments that have figuratively, and in a sense, literally given a breath of life to those affected by Cystic Fibrosis. The advancement in diagnostic screening at birth and specific presenting symptoms, provide physicians and practitioners the opportunity to examine and aggressively treat CF from an early age, yielding a considerable positive impact on the life expectancy of those with CF. “During the past 3 decades, treatment advances have raised the median predicted survival age in the United States from 25 years (1985), to 37.4 years (2008)”(Song, Chiu, & Yoon, 2012, p. 132).
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease affecting Canadians (2). CF can affect multiple organs; however, the most fatal symptoms occur in the lung. As of 2013, the median age of survival for CF is roughly 50 years old with treatment (3). However, patient life-span decreases dramatically when treatment options such as antibiotics and enzymes are not administered, and nutritional changes or lung transplants are not made (3). Currently, there is no cure for CF, although current treatments can improve patient outcome.
Common medications include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medicines, bronchodilators, or medicines to help clear the mucus. For advanced lung disease, Oxygen therapy may be prescribed, and a lung transplant if severe. Pulmonary rehab helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic breathing problems from CF. Nutritional therapy is given to help the digestive system as well.
With regards to the respiratory system, CF patients are required to wear a chest wall oscillator once daily for 30 minutes to mechanically agitate the mucus build up that they would otherwise not be cough up. On top of the “vest” treatment, they also must take anti-inflammatories and antibiotics regularly to prevent infection and inflammation. As for the GI tract, no mechanical treatment is available, so patients must ingest digestive enzyme supplements that the pancreas cannot deliver naturally. In some cases patients develop CF related diabetes, as the pancreas is also responsible for providing the body with insulin to regulate blood sugar concentrations. On top of these treatments, people with CF must boost the amount of calories and salts in their diets to compensate for the malnourishment and for the amount of salt released by the patients
Medicines officially utilized as a part of the treatment of COPD may likewise be valuable in some comorbid ailments. New treatments ought to likewise be considered as conceivably helpful to systemic appearances and comorbidities. For instance, a viable breathed in calming treatment may enhance comorbidities by diminishing the overspill of fiery go-betweens from the lung that add to systemic aggravation. On the other hand, an oral calming treatment, and additionally smothering aggravation on the respiratory tract, may straightforwardly decrease systemic irritation. Obviously, a great deal more clinical and essential research is expected to comprehend the unpredictability of COPD so that more successful administration of COPD and its different comorbidities is conceivable later
With CF people lack the special enzyme to break up mucous. Without the mucous breaking up the person cannot breathe because the lungs are filled. In life the body cannot function with enough oxygen.
A widely accepted Caucasian disease has since changed; as cases of its existence are appearing in the South Asian Population (Orenstein, Rosenstein and Stern, 2000). First discovered in 1989, Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetically predetermined condition, its presences is lifelong and highly complex, which is why many CF sufferers and families develop various mechanisms in order to adapt to the condition (Tippingemail, Scholes, Cox, 2010). Cystic Fibrosis causes the body to develop thick, sticky mucus which clogs the lungs and affects other organs in the body, mainly the pancreas. The layer of mucus if untreated develops in to a chronic infection which can be detrimental. The pancreas of a CF patient is most vulnerable, once the mucus has
Every day, people die from Cystic Fibrosis. That is why Cystic Fibrosis is known as the most deadly inherited disease. There is no real cure of CF but, right now there are many ways to ease your symptoms and help you manage the condition. “Every day, people with CF complete a combination of the following therapies Airway clearance, Inhaled medicines, Pancreatic enzyme supplement and sometime oxygen therapy depending on how severe your condition is”(McLoud). Since there is so many new advancements in treatment, people who have CF now live twice as long as they did 30 years ago.
The Main treatment for someone with lung problems with CF is chest physical therapy, which is also called chest clapping or percussion. CPT is done by pounding your chest and back repeatedly with your hands or device to loosen the mucus from your lungs so that you can cough it up. Exercise is also a choice of a treatment plan, exercised that make you breathe harder can help loosen the mucus in your airways so you can cough it up. Medication can also be used to treat Cystic Fibrosis, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medicines, bronchodilators, or other medication that can help clear the mucus buildup in the lungs(“Cystic
The Breathe Free Foundation for Cystic Fibrosis can be best described as, “One of the most influential and supportive organizations for individuals with CF,” according to Rudd. “Not only did they better my health, but Breathe Free made it possible for my son, Trey, to go to college. Without the financial support that they have given me, my children and I would be homeless.” Breathe Free’s Executive Director, Glen Ross, has made supporting the financial needs of all CF individuals and families the main priority.
The World Health Organization (WHO) (2006A) defines COPD as a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not wholly reversible. The airflow limitation is usually both progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. John's chronic bronchitis is defined, clinically, as the presence of a chronic productive cough for 3 months in each of 2 successive years, provided other causes of chronic cough have been ruled out. (Mannino, 2003). The British lung Foundation (BLF) (2005) announces that chronic bronchitis is the inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes which is the explanation for John's dyspnea. The BLF (2005) believe that when the bronchi become inflamed less air is able to flow to and from the lungs and once the bronchial tubes have been irritated over a long period of time, excessive mucus is produced. This increased sputum results from an increase in the size and number of goblet cells (Jeffery, 2001) resulting in John's excessive mucus production. The lining of the bronchial tubes becomes thickened and an irritating cough develops, (Waugh & Grant 2004) which is an additional symptoms that john is experiencing.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is the third leading cause of death in the United States. COPD includes extensive lungs diseases such as emphysema, non-reversible asthma, specific forms of bronchiectasis, and chronic bronchitis. This disease restricts the flow of air in and out of the lungs. Ways in which these limitations may occur include the loss of elasticity in the air sacs and throughout the airways, the destruction of the walls between air sacs, the inflammation or thickening of airway walls, or the overproduction of mucus in airways which can lead to blockage. Throughout this paper I am going to explain the main causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and ways to reduce COPD.