In Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s letter in the direction of Napoleon III regarding the banishment of the French creator Victor Hugo, she used many exceptional strategies to try and pardon Hugo. some of tries encompass Browning trying to belittle Napoleon and using sarcasm about how she thinks he's a robust chief but then gives his terrible movements. near the cease of the letter, however, Browning includes her admiration in the direction of Napoleon III. on this letter, Browning has more than one records and other points wherein she will use to counter Napoleon’s emotions dealing with victor Hugo. The English poet, Elizabeth Barrett Browning honestly uses exceptional rhetorical techniques to petition Napoleon.
Using such specific examples will help clearly highlight the difference in opinion of the two authors and the way in which Goldhagen tries to show the members of the Police Battalion as “Ordinary Germans” who were “Willing Executioners”, while Browning presents them as “Ordinary Men” reacting to a certain set of specific circumstances.
The main argument in “Ordinary Men” is a flexible argument that can be inserted into the gaps of past hypotheses while holding merit. Part of Browning’s effective appeal is his concession to other offered historian’s ideas on the subject while establishing why his ideas with an emphasis on psychology, provide a superior answer for the question at hand. Seeing that there are two majority view points in relation to this discussion with the intentionalists claiming that this was a desired outcome from the inception of war juxtaposed to the functionalists, who declare that “normal” men would subjugate the Jews as the war developed, the refutation to the intentionalist point of view is well addressed by Browning, he points out the flaws in arguments the directly root their idea of the participation of “normal” men to merely being the product of sheer Nazi indoctrination. I agree with the idea that Nazi indoctrination would qualify for an explanation to why higher ranking Nazi SS officials would be able to kill Polish Jewry without troubles considering their high involvement and connection to Nazism, but that hypothesis does not offer enough intellectual reach to explain why men of which belonged to Major Wilhelm Trapp’s battalion, who were described as “mostly middle aged reservists” (Browning) would be converted into mindless machines without the freedom
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was a plain woman of the Victorian Era that was most remarkably gifted. She “was destined to become known to the world”(Preston xi). Elizabeth Barrett Browning became known for her poetry, because she showed marriages were her women character were often left emotionally unstable.
Browning claims that the Germans were blindly following orders. Thus the responsibility for the crimes falls on those who gave the orders. This in and of
The basis of this novel relies on the need to show that these men were not necessarily physically forced to commit these heinous acts, but that they mentally and psychologically had their hands tied. These men were just as the title of this novel states: ordinary—they were middle-aged men who were lower-middle class, and they had families and worked for a living; they were entirely and frightfully normal, but in just a short span of time they had executed 1800 Jews in a single day. Through this novel and excerpts from Hitler and Nazi Germany: A History, Browning’s theory about the police battalion executioners can be proven accurate and it gives an explanation for these men’s actions. When giving this order to Police Battalion 101 their commander, Wilhelm Trapp, relayed the orders with tears in his eyes, but when given the opportunity, many of the men did not opt out of the executing. The first man to step out began to be berated by Captain Hoffmann but was stopped by Trapp. Trapp and Hoffmann show the nature of this time—while the compassionate and reasonable Trapp shows that the men have an escape out of their
In the book Ordinary Men, Christopher Browning tackles the question of why German citizens engaged in nefarious behavior that led to the deaths of millions of Jewish and other minorities throughout Europe. The question of what drove Germans to commit acts of genocide has been investigated by numerous historians, but unfortunately, no overarching answer for the crimes has yet been decided upon. However, certain theories are more popular than others. Daniel Goldhagen in his book, Hitler’s Willing Executioners, has expounded that the nature of the German culture before the Second World War was deeply embedded in anti-Semitic fervor, which in turn, acted as the catalyst for the events that would unfold into the Holocaust. It is at this
The men of Reserve Police Battalion 101 were just ordinary men, from a variety of backgrounds, education, and age. It would appear that they were not selected by any force other than random chance. Their backgrounds and upbringing, however, did little to prepare these men for the horrors they were to witness and participate in.
Christopher R. Browning’s “Ordinary Men” chronicles the rise and fall of the Reserve Police Battalion 101. The battalion was one of several units that took part in the Final Solution to the Jewish Question while in Poland. The men of Reserve Police Battalion 101, and other units were comprised of ordinary men, from ordinary backgrounds living under the Third Reich. Browning’s premise for the book is very unique, instead of focusing on number of victims, it examines the mindset of how ordinary men, became cold-hearted killers under Nazi Germany during World War II. Christopher Browning’s “Ordinary Men” presents a very strong case that the men who made up the Reserve Police Battalion 101 were indeed ordinary men from ordinary background, and
In Christopher Browning’s book, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland tells the story of Battalion 101, a group of 500 policemen in their 30’s and 40’s who were sent into Poland to participate in a ‘special action’ without being told exactly what they are doing. Overtime they realized their mission is to Kill Jews and racially purify Europe. Most of the killing during this period of mass murder took place in Poland. Battalion 101 together with other Order Police battalions contributed to the manpower needed to carry out this enormous task. Browning comments that these men all went through their developmental period before the Nazis came into power. These were men who had known political standards and moral norms other than those of the Nazis. Most men came from Hamburg; one of the least ‘nazified’ cities in Germany and the majority came from a social class that had been anti-Nazi in its political culture. In seems this would not seem to have been a very promising group from which to recruit mass murderers on behalf on the Nazi vision of a racial utopia free of Jews. However, their actions helps us understand not only what they did to make the Holocaust happen, but also how they were transformed psychologically from the ordinary men into active participants in the most horrific offence in human history. In doing so, it aims on the human capacity for extreme evil and leaves this subject matter with the shock of knowledge and the
In Christopher R. Browning’s book Ordinary Men, Browning tells us about who the real perpetrators of the mass killings of the Holocaust were; a group that was called the Order Police. They were, according to him, ordinary men. He referred to them as such because they were simply men who were drawn from everyday German citizens. They most likely, before the Holocaust, were working-class individuals from Poland. Most of them were around the ages of 32 to 42 years old. The majority of these men were not even part of the Nazi party -- only about a quarter were actually members. They, according to Browning, were just regular guys who were chosen for this group.
"There are no extraordinary men... just extraordinary circumstances that ordinary men are faced to deal with" (William Halsey). The same can be said about volatile men. This is the quote Christopher R. Browning thought of when he named this book. The men of the 101st battalion were rarely faced with decisions. Even if it had been proposed by Trapp the morning of Jozefow that "any of the older men who did not feel up to the task that lay before them could step out" (Browning, chapter 7, pg. 57), he didn't actually allow them any time to truly think about it. He brought it up moments before they were about to go out to the slaughter. They were blind-sided and the men who didn't want to risk the future of their jobs as policemen or the men
The arguments of Christopher Browning and Daniel John Goldhagen contrast greatly based on the underlining meaning of the Holocaust to ordinary Germans. Why did ordinary citizens participate in the process of mass murder? Christopher Browning examines the history of a battalion of the Order Police who participated in mass shootings and deportations. He debunks the idea that these ordinary men were simply coerced to kill but stops short of Goldhagen's simplistic thesis. Browning uncovers the fact that Major Trapp offered at one time to excuse anyone from the task of killing who was "not up to it." Despite this offer, most of the
Robert Browning’s poem “The Laboratory” is set in France before the French Revolution. The dramatic monologue is about the narrator herself and her plotting of revenge against her previous lover and his current mistress and it tells the reader how she plans on doing so. She believes her actions in the story are justified and reasonable.
Robert Browning's "Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came" is a poem about torture. Whether Roland is actually in Hell or just trapped in the madness of his mind, his own failure and the way in which he wasted his life will continue to torment him for all eternity. The imagery throughout the poem displays a completely despairing attitude, and several bitter ironies which he cannot escape plague him during his quest.