Bullying Affects Adolescent Development

3904 Words Jan 11th, 2018 16 Pages
There are a range of definitions of bullying but the most widely accepted one is the definition put forth by Olweus (1978), who was one of the first to apply a system wide successful intervention in Norway. He states
"A person is being bullied when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time, to a negative act on the part of one or more persons. Negative actions are considered to be when someone purposefully inflicts, or tries to inflict injury or discomfort on another person. Negative actions may be both verbal (e.g. threatening, degrading, teasing) or non-verbal (e.g. hitting, kicking, slapping, pushing, vandalizing property, rude gestures and making faces)".
Olweus (1993) later added another form of bullying called "indirect bullying", which involves social isolation and exclusion from the group. Digital bullying has also become a problem of interest recently and includes "sending menacing messages by phone, e-mail (or instant messaging) and creating hate-filled web pages about a person where they include personal information about that person" (Aluede, 2006). Much of this definition is the way in which bullying was defined for the participants of the study.
It is also known that bystanders play an important role in encouraging or discouraging the bully. Bystanders can be "active" by laughing and cheering on…
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