Bureaucracy Is The Administrative Heart And Soul Of Government

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“The bureaucracy is the administrative heart and soul of government” (Lowi, Ginsberg, Shepsle, and Ansolabehere, 2014, p.302). Bureaucracy, in administrative states, is the link, medium, and transitional phase in which policies that have become laws, are passed by elected officials and are delivered by the bureaucracy to the people. When policies are to be implemented into laws, Congress, at times, gives vague instructions to the bureaucracy. In doing so, the bureaucracy has the power to make their own interpretation as to how the policy should be implemented. However, bureaucrats (the agents) have their own interests and beliefs as well (Lowi et al., 2014). How can the decisions of bureaucrats, when interpreting and implementing laws, not be affected by their own personal interests and beliefs? Can the autonomy of the bureaucracy, in these cases, to interpret the law really be considered a “power”? Multiple studies have been conducted to evaluate how such components have an effect on organizational performance. Lois Recascino Wise’s (2004) explanation of why bureaucracies vary in the manner in which they perform their organizational roles is based on sound assumptions and a persuasive causal logic, but his theory does not explain in depth the uncontrollable factors that have an effect on bureaucratic posture as do the theories of other researchers. The reasoning for the variations in bureaucratic posture is explained and developed into what is known as the “Theory of

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