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Business theorists * Frederick Taylor's theory of scientific management developed techniques for improving the efficiency of the work process. * Based on a systematic study of people, tasks and work behaviour, Taylor's theory broke the work process down into the smallest possible units, or sub-tasks, in an effort to determine the most efficient method possible for completing a particular job. * Taylor's method consisted of testing the completion of various tasks to determine the optimal amount of work that could be accomplished within a certain time period. * Taylor's management theory asserts that organizations should identify the best way to do a job, train workers to handle each element in a pre-determined manner…show more content…
* He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or other conditions became progressively worse * What he actually discovered surprised him: whatever the change in lighting or working conditions, the productivity levels of the workers improved or remained the same. * From this Mayo concluded that workers are best motivated by: * Better communication between managers and workers ( Hawthorne workers were consulted over the experiments and also had the opportunity to give feedback) * Greater manager involvement in employees working lives ( Hawthorne workers responded to the increased level of attention they were receiving) * Working in groups or teams. ( Hawthorne workers did not previously regularly work in teams) * In practice therefore businesses should re-organise production to encourage greater use of team working and introduce personnel departments to encourage greater manager involvement in looking after employees' interests. * His theory most closely fits in with a paternalistic style of management. Charles handy The theories of Charles Handy have had a powerful effect on modern management thinking. His views on organizational development and leadership have helped usher in a more humanitarian style of management and a more visionary and purpose-driven organizational methodology. Along with various other theoretical models, Charles Handy expounded his Four Cultures Theory in which he described each

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