Business and Management in Context

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INTRODUCTION

A number of different major schools of management thoughts have been emerged since 100 years ago. Various views of management have been arisen and affected the managerial skills both in the past and the present.

The whole world had been changed dramatically during the last 100 years. As Clarke and Clegg point out that the increasing rate of change and increasing complexity in the business world is making it harder and harder for managers to find simple statements of management truth. This assignment is going to discuss the changes in the last 50 years which have been affected the three basic skills, Technical skill, Human skill and Conceptual skill, cited by Robert L. Katz in 1950s. And try to compare Katz's work
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Technical skill is still one of the important elements for effective management.

Katz considered that human skill was significant for effective management. Managers should have ability to work with, understand and motivate people as individuals or groups. Workers are critical success factor to the implementation of management thoughts in achieving company's goal. Respectively, managers have to show their support to their workers and provide them incentive to work hard for the organisation.

Human relation approach would enhance the workers' efficiency: the Hawthorne experiments have pointed out the relationship between the human factors and productivity, such as by giving workers a break and hot snack could increase the productivity. Furthermore, some new management ideas were generated in this experiment, such as, leadership, communications, output restrictions, motivation and job design (Morden, 1996). These skills are adopted by vast majority of modern management.

Conceptual skill was also recommended by Katz. Managers are required to have mental ability to coordinate and integrate all things related to organisation and to perceive things broadly. Specialization is good enough to classify tasks into specific area; however, different management functions shall not be put together. Therefore, manager should integrate all the elements of the organisation's situation in order to maximize the productivity and profitability. This skill is very similar
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