In this experiment, we were given three main goals to accomplish. We were to identify the compound through a series of organized experiments and analyze as many physical chemical properties as possible.
There is a very easy way to find the empirical formula of a compound using the mass percentages found through elemental analysis. First, convert the mass percentages to a mass, assuming that the compound is 100g. Then convert each mass into moles using the molar masses. Then divide each of these moles by the element with the smallest amount of moles. That is the ratio of the empirical formula. Just make sure that the numbers are in whole numbers, if not, multiply by common denominators to get all of them to a whole number (3).
“Indoor tanning under the age of 18 increases your risk of skin cancer by 75%”(Division of Cancer Prevention Ceanter). Over 10,000 people are expected to die this year from UV related causes. However, many people will disregard these facts and continue on with their harmful habits. There are many effects of artificial tanning and prolonged exposure to the sun. Many people have no idea about the risks of prolonged exposure to the sun, how dangerous artificial tanning actually is, or how radiation is not the only harmful trait of indoor tanning.
Whether swimming at the beach, picnicking at a park, or snowboarding in the mountains, our skin is continuously exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet rays as we go about our daily lives. The skin is beneficial as it protects our body from the outside elements including keeping out wind and water, dirt and dust, and all types of germs (Claybourne; 56). The topic of my experiment is to determine which SPF strength of sunscreen - SPF 30, SPF 50 or SPF 70 - is the most effective in blocking out the sun’s UV radiation. The purpose of this investigation is to observe, compare and determine whether the SPF label on sunscreen bottles are really effective in blocking out the amount of the sun’s UV rays, or if it is just a marketing gimmick to sell more products. This investigation benefits society because knowing which strength of SPF is the most effective in protecting against UV rays is useful to know when shopping for sunscreen, especially for those who spend a lot of time outdoors.
Several findings are made based on the results: UV radiation can cause cell death by inducing genetic mutation, which agree with Diepegen et al. (2012)’s finding regarding UV radiation’s destructive effect at a cellular level. Photoprotective agents can effectively prevent and reduce UV radiation induced damage to cells. Similar findings were made by Quatrano and Dinulos (2013), who indicated that sunscreen contains active ingredient that absorbs UV radiation ranging between 290-400 nm. This experiment proves that photoprotective agents with higher SPF values are more effective in absorbing UV radiation. Indicated by Green et al. (2011), they suggested that regular application of high SPF sunscreen will prevent melanoma.
Cosmetics are substances that are applied onto the body and/or face to enhance a person’s looks or scent. Cosmetics can be make-up which is mostly used by women and it is to enhance a female’s appearance. It is normally applied to face, hair, and body. Cosmetics has been used throughout society since Ancient times. In Ancient Egypt, cosmetic chemistry was being used before anyone knew it related to chemistry. Cosmetics was being used for many reasons in Ancient times. It is said that Cleopatra bathed in donkey milk to keep skin smooth, this is an example to show that chemistry is being used for the benefit of skin care. Skin care is another example of cosmetic chemistry being used. Skin care has been an important factor in society. Skin care has been around since 3000 BC in Ancient Egypt. This was prepared by natural materials.
The molecular formula is the actual amount of atoms of in each molecule but is not used in this lab. Empirical formulas can be found by converting the grams of each substance within a compound to moles using their molar mass then dividing each value by the smallest value calculated. That results in the molar ratios which are multiplied so that they are all whole numbers. Those numbers can be plugged into the formula as subscripts to obtain the empirical formula which is the simplest form of the formula. The empirical formula of copper chloride hydrate will be found by completing experiment and using the masses of the reactants and products. The mass of chlorine is not measured during the experiment but can be found through the masses of water and copper that are measured in the experiment. By adding the masses of water and copper together the mass of chlorine can be determined and used in finding the mole ratios which can then lead to the formation of the empirical formula. The empirical formula of the hydrous compound will be found and is different than the anhydrous formula. The anhydrous version won’t contain water.
This sunscreen uses 9.0% transparent zinc oxide to give the best protection possible from UV rays. The formula includes a strong dose of antioxidants that help absorb free radicals, the main cause of aging skin. Hyaluronic acid helps retain moisture in the skin, smoothing and softening wrinkles.
2. Choose the right sun cream for your skin tone, medical history, and type of outdoor activity. This means that you’ll want a sun cream made with minerals and not chemicals to effectively shield your face, nose, ears, lips, scalp, and neck against sunburn from the sun’s UVB rays. There are three types of UV rays: UVA Rays contribute to sun spots, premature aging of the skin, and facial wrinkles; UVB Rays contribute to sunburns and cataracts, and are linked to a number of skin cancers; and UVC Rays are the strongest and most deadly of the sun’s rays, but the ozone layer prevents them from reaching the earth.
For this year’s science project, I would like to test the effects of both mineral and commercial sunscreens on human skin and coral reefs. In current news, the island chain and United States’ state, Hawaii is planning on banning common sunscreens for the detrimental effects on the coral reefs. I would like to test the sunscreens for the detrimental effects on human skin as well to answer the common question, “Why should I care?” With this project, I will be able to educate the public on not only the effects of chemicals on marine life, but also on humans as well. Also, determine if there is a way not to wear sunscreen at all and still be protected from the sun’s UV rays.
There are many policies that affect us as educators in our everyday practices in Early Childhood Settings. The policy that I will be discussing in part one is the Sunscreen Policy. The importance of applying sunscreen connects closely to Education and Care Services National Law Act (Education and Care Services National Law Act 2010, p.112) This section 167 mentions how we can protect children from harm and hazards. This can be achieved in one way by understanding and have knowledge of why applying and be following SunSmart procedures is important. In my opinion, I believe the application of sunscreen is a very simple policy to follow. Children's health and safety should always be our priority as educators and being able to provide early education with why sunscreen is important to wear creates great learning opportunities for children.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010), ultraviolet (UV) rays are remarkably damaging to the skin without the proper protection. The National Weather Service and the EPA have developed the UV Index, a tool that predicts the level of UV radiation and indicates the risk, numerically. It is scale in which 0-2 indicates low risk of danger from sun rays, 3-5 indicates moderate risk, 6-7 indicates high risk, 8-10 indicates very high risk, and 11+ indicates extreme risk of harm. There are a considerable number of factors that influence an ultraviolet level, including stratospheric ozone layer, time of day, time of year, latitude, altitude, weather
Every hour at least one American will die of skin cancer caused by exposure to the sun. These statistics are alarming and most people are unaware that the sunshine that we all love so much is in fact a threat to our health and good looks. It is up to us to educate ourselves and our children on the harmful effects of sun exposure on the human body like premature aging, physical damage to the body, and cancerous diseases.
Carlowicz, Michael. New Simulation Shows Consequences of a World Without Earth’s Natural Sunscreen. Ed. Robert Garner. NASA. 25 Mar. 2009. 8 Jan. 2017.