What is the blast effect? The blast effect is the outward rush of gases from the bomb’s site of origin.
Of the four major terrorist hot spots in the world today —the global presence of Al Qaida, Iraq, North Korea, and Iran (with considerable thought given to Syria, the Caucuses, and lone wolves)—which do you believe represents the greatest threat to the United States? All, of the above, I feel like all of these equally is our greatest challenge as a nation, it reminds me of the juggler at the circus, only this juggler is juggling with chainsaws. I would also have to include in Russia as well as China into the mix from the standpoint of military action in Syria on the part of Russia along with it’s nuclear capabilities and the cyber attacks of China, which know doubts holds a great deal of my information. Our country is being pulled in many different directions and with the advancement of technology and social media; many times the advantages go directly to the terrorist (Shinkman, 2015). An example many times terrorist will go dark and can be lost for a period of time, it can be virtually impossible to detect what is happening. By going dark, I am speaking of chatting on social media and then they take the conversation private, using technology that is encrypted to encode their messages where they
Nuclear energy is defined as energy released by reactions within atomic nuclei, as in nuclear fission or fusion (“Dictionary”). Nuclear fission is defined as a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy. The definition of nuclear fission is as reaction in which two nuclei combine to form a nucleus with the release of energy (“Dictionary”). The process of nuclear fission and fusion happen inside of a nuclear reactor that is located in a nuclear power plant. Also needing to be defined, a nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear fission initiates a controlled chain reaction, producing heat energy typically used for power generation, and neutrons and fission products (“Dictionary”). It is also important to know that there are a few different kinds of nuclear reactors. The different kind of reactors include: pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, gas-cooled reactors, and light water graphite reactors (Blau 117). Finally, a nuclear power plant is a facility for the production of electricity using
Based on this week’s readings, I believe both rogue and established terrorist organizations possess the capability to unleash CBRN weapons in international and domestic attacks. The ability of sub and non-state actors to disperse CBRN weapons will be limited due to the fact they have limited resources. Small terrorist activities will not have a military or strategic capability to execute a high-altitude airburst, which would have the most widespread effect. According to Sinai (2007), terrorist
The threat that first responders encounter is always changing because they have to be trained to understand several different scenarios. They have to be able to respond to a regular crime scene, a natural disaster and increasingly trained now to respond to a terrorist attack. One of the biggest threats they face is the unknown because training for it is impossible because the scenario is not common and usually highly unpredictable. One of the biggest unknowns for a first responder will be when they respond to a CBRNE situation. CBRNE is a very common acronym that stands for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive. CBRNE must now be considered with the more standard traditional threats that first responders face each day
This threat of CBRN attacks on U.S. solid is an attack scenario that likely keeps those charged with risk mitigation up at night. There as so many different types of CBRN scenarios that, to compile a comprehensive list of what would be impacting or even devastating is a challenge in it self. Combine that task with attempt to now thwart ALL of these threats and you make for one busy section of the Homeland Security and Homeland Defense efforts.
Key drivers of terrorist risks include; terrorist threat, cyber threats, biological terrorism, nuclear terrorism, transnational criminal organizations, and natural hazards such as climate change and aging infrastructure.
There are two main types of nuclear bombs the fusion, which is a hypothetical pure fusion, and the fission bombs. The fission bomb is more commonly called the atomic bomb and the fusion bomb is more commonly called a Hydrogen Bomb of H-Bomb for short. These bombs are both made very differently and have different effects and blast sizes. These Bombs are very different in what they are made of and the how they are created. The fission bomb has two different styles of bombs the gun and the implosion. First, the “gun” it is called this because of the way it would look and work. There would be a large piece of sub-critical material at one end ad at the other would be another that would be shaped like a wedge and there would be a lot of TNT behind this wedge that would explode and when it explodes it will force the wedge into the other sub-critical piece of material which would make them go super-critical. This then creates the splitting of the atoms and the big blast. The fusion bomb has never actually been made before. It is purely hypothetical;
Atomic bombs are made up of uranium, that has an isotope that creates a nuclear chain reaction. The immediate energy release per atom is about 180 million electron volts. It is caused by a sudden release of energy produced by splitting the nuclei of the fissile elements making up the bombs' core.
Can be distributed, making it hard to spot. It is believed that Saddam Hussein intended to use this approach once he was rid of UN inspectors. Laser separation has also been used In addition there may be new technologies that make it much easier to do or at least easier to conceal. Only a ton or so of natural uranium is required to produce enough enriched uranium for as much weapons you need.
During a nuclear explosion, there are four major steps of the process. Within “Nuclear Weapons Effects,” each of these steps is explained. The first occurrence is a flash and fireball. The second step is the shock-wave. A firestorm takes third place. Followed by this is a delayed radiation fallout. Before these main stages are obvious indications to the explosion. “...the Earth under your feet has taken on a charge.” (Baker 7) Previous to nuclear explosions, the Earth
Shielding can be a safe method of reducing exposure. This tends to block out or reduce the wavelength of exposure to nuclear radiation. Shielding can involve a number of blocking substances that occur naturally in the environment or artificially made for the purpose. Barriers can be made from water, lead or even concrete. The use of barriers tends to effectively reduce the rate and amount of exposure to radioactive rays. It is the reason that a number of processes or materials are kept in lead-enclosed rooms, under water or even behind concrete
Another terrorist weapon that is still in the infancy stages is cyberterrorism. Currently the computer threat is minimal with only a few viruses here and there, but with the evolution process, Laqueur foresees a greater threat through the use of the computer. With a global society quickly becoming dependent on the use of the computer, the attacks could lead to total country disorientation.
Nuclear warfare is at a higher risk today than ever before. With America and other countries creating more nuclear weapons for warfare, terrorists are just as capable of creating or acquiring their own nuclear arsenal. Harvard scholar and former Bush Administration official William Tobey, also states that “The capabilities of some terrorist groups, particularly the Islamic State, have grown dramatically. In a net calculation, the risk of nuclear terrorism is higher than it was two years ago” (Cortright, "The Dangers of Nuclear Weapons Are Greater than Ever Due to Proliferation and Terrorism"). Terrorist have full capabilities to seek revenge and hit back just as hard or even worse than what has been done to them. They will not idly stand by and take the brunt of the attacks posed against them. They will retaliate.
In early August 1945, President Harry Truman approved for two nuclear bombs, uranium-235 and plutonium-239, made by the United States of America and the United Kingdom, to be dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki bringing the Second World War to an abrupt end. On the first day of the bombing, each