CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter has introduced major factors which have prominent effects

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter has introduced major factors which have prominent effects on head reduction on the substantial results from past researchers as below:- 2.1 Air Gap 1).In 1998, Lacena-Neidez [5] made a numerical and experimental simulation of heat transfers in innovative building components. She focused on the design of double-skin metal roofs for typical countries. 2).In 2002, the French Scientific and Technical Centre for Building Research conducted a series if measurement on experimental double-skin roof [6]. 3).In 2007, the paper named “Heat transfer in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time” [7] from Energy and Building investigated on the double skin roof which formed by two…show more content…
2.3 Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical system. It can be achieved with windows or door. Therefore, we have to consider natural wind in tropical climate. In Singapore last year 2013, the wind is most often out of north (17% of the time), south (12% of the time), and south east (10% of the time). The wind at least often out of the south west (4% of the time), north west (4% of the time), and west (5% of the time)[13]. Figure 2.2 Singapore Wind Speed 2013, the average daily minimum (red), maximum (green), and average (black) wind speed with percentile bands [13]. As show in Figure 2.2, the highest wind speed was 3m/s and it was occurred around February 2013, at that time the average daily maximum wind speed was 6m/s. And the lowest wind speed was 1m/s and it was occurred around April 2013, at that time the average daily maximum wind speed was 3m/s. 2.4 Forced Ventilation Forced convection is a mechanism, or type of heat transport in which fluid motion is generated by external sources or apparatus, like a pump, fan, suction device, etc. Mechanical ventilation is a system that extracts air from the room, the moist air is drawn up ducts through above the roof ridge. The air
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