Can Skin Dermal Papilla (DP) Cells Differentiate into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells?

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The question of this article is to determine if skin dermal papilla (DP) cells can differentiate into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the transcription factor, OCT4, instead of using all four transcription factor, OCT4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, which are usually used to differentiate somatic cells into stem cells.
The scientists came up with the question because two out of the four transcription factors, Klf4 and c-Myc, are oncogenic gene, thereby it is best to replace these genes with other safer alternatives. Reprogramming cells into induced pluripotent stem cells impose risks because the process requires several transcription factors. To reduce the risks, programming iPSCs should require as little transcription factors
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Then for in vivo differentiation, two mice mated and all the blastocysts were collected. 1TF iPSCs injected into each blastocyst and the blastocysts were transplanted into the uterus of pseudopregnant female mice. 1TF chimeric mice were born and tested for gene expression. Then, 1TF mice mated to create F1 pup. These generations were used to test for indication of potential risks that occurred because of the differentiation.
In the results, the control group showed Oct4-GFP positive in five days while experimental group, 1TF iPSC, showed Oct4-GFP positive in 18 days. 1TF iPSC with only OCT4 as the transcription factor had reprogramming efficiency of 0.088%, which is higher than the control group that used all four transcription factors. 1TF iPS cell is morphology similar to ES cells 1TF iPSC colonies were stained positive for nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and SSEA-1. In addition, genes in expressed in the control group were all expressed in the experimental group. Like all pluripotent stem cells, 1TF iPSCs differentiated into the three germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. For in vivo, Oct4 were expressed in gonads of 1TF chimeric mice. 17 out of 43 mice grew into adult mice with the same agouti coat color as their parent. And in the third generation, the pup has no tumor formation, Oct4 -GFP was expressed as well as Lef1-RFP, which was the gene of the first generation Lef1-RFP/Oct4-GFP/Rosa26-lacZ transgenic

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