Cancer Caring Model

Decent Essays
Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Caring
Approximately 1,685,210 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in the United States (US) in 2016, equivalent to 192 new diagnoses every hour (Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2016). Although survival rates of cancer patients have been increasing, it is the second-leading cause of death in the US and leading cause of death in the world (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015; Davis, 2016). Siegel et al. estimates 595,690 individuals will die from cancer in 2016 in the US.
This paper will examine the cancer diagnosis and staging process, complications, and side effects of treatments. Methods that can be utilized to assist in lessening the physiological and psychological effects of cancer and treatments will also be explored.
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More than 200 different types of have been identified, some of which are caused by inherited genetic defects while others are caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices (Davis, 2016). In most cases early diagnosis of cancer leads to a better prognosis, making it essential for individuals to see their primary care providers for any unexplained and persistent symptoms (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2015b). Although the signs and symptoms listed in table 1 are commonly associated with cancer, they are not only specific to…show more content…
A biopsy of the suspected cancer tissue is the only definitive diagnosis (Davis, 2016). There are several different ways a biopsy can be obtained such as through an endoscopy, needle biopsy, and surgical biopsy. Once the biopsy is obtained the tissue is examined under a microscope to determine whether the tumor is malignant or benign, type of cancer, and the tumor grade ("Module 6: Cancer," 2011). The tumor grade refers to how similar or different the cells resemble the normal tissue. If the tumor cells resemble the normal tissue it is referred to as well differentiated and tends to be slow growing and leads to good prognosis. However, if the tumor cells do not resemble or only slightly resemble the normal tissue it is referred to as poorly differentiated or undifferentiated. This is usually indicative of a fast growing and more aggressive cells that may ultimately lead to a poorer prognosis (“Module 6: Cancer,” 2011).
Table 1: Signs and Symptoms of Cancer
• Changes in Skin
• Fatigue
• Unexplained weight loss or gain
• Lump or thickening under skin
• Changes in breast or nipple shape, size, or texture
• Unusual or
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