Cancer Is The Second Leading Cause Death Globally

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Introduction Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. Esophageal cancers (EC) are a significant worldwide health problem because of its poor prognosis and specifically, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence has been rising at an alarming rate for the past few decades (Howlader N et al., 2011). It is estimated that in 2013, 17,990 people in the United States will be diagnosed with esophageal cancer and greater than 85% of those diagnosed will succumb to the disease (Cancer Statistics, 2013). Even do there have been advances in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy; still these methods have not significantly modified its prognosis over the past decades. Diagnosis of EAC tends to drastically occur at an advanced…show more content…
Three years later GERD was associated with Barrett’s development (Allison PR, 1953) and subsequently in 1975 a study of 140 cases showed that 8.5% of those patients developed EAC (Naef AP et al, 1975). Only about 10-15% of patients with chronic GERD develop BE, this suggest that further genetic and environmental factors are possibly involved in the development of BE and/or EAC (Contedica V et al., 2012). The process of neoplastic transformation from Barrett’s esophagus to EAC is a stepwise process, which involves serial grades of dysplasia. Even do BE is considered an acquire pre-malignant lesion of the esophagus, the exact mechanism for this development and progression are still not understood. Some studies have shown that bile acids can cause injury in the esophageal squamous lining and lead to the development of metaplasia by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage (Dvorak K, 2007). Also, patients with central obesity are more predispose to suffer from increase intra-gastric pressure which increases the GERD. Studies trying to understand the progression from BE to EAC looking at expression profiles compared to normal tissue, have suggested different pathways activated in the BE, but still, the cell of origin of BE is not known (Shaheen NJ and Richter JE, 2009). Patients who suffer from BE are enrolled in surveillance programs were they take biopsies by endoscopy
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