Cancer is described as the abnormal growth of cells. Normal cells are replaced with abnormal cells in which their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been damaged or augmented (McCance & Huether, 2014). Cancer cells with their various DNA changes are characterized by growing uncontrollably, being immortal with an unlimited lifespan
With the hopes of curing the patient’s afflictions, these newly grown cells would then be transplanted into the patient. With this approach come major problems such as the formation of tumours, which is caused by the distinguishing trait of stem cells. Because stem cells are able to divide for an unlimited amount of time, it has been found that the cells will not know when to stop dividing and they will continue to divide even after being transplanted into the patient (Herold 48). This form of treatment is counterproductive, as uncontrollable cell division will produce tumours and potentially cause cancer, which is one of the ailments that stem cell research promises to cure.
In order to become cancerous a cell has many molecular changes that can occur including: tumor suppressor gene inactivation, oncogene activation, telomerase lengthening, ability to evade apoptosis, and angiogenesis (Mechanisms in Medicine, 2012). There are a few particular
Many doctors, physicians, researchers and biotech companies--including the revolutionary Seattle Genetics research facility--are now turning to antibody-assisted cancer treatments and precisely targeted cures instead of treating cancer with a cocktail of chemicals and radiation that generate risky side effects and damage the healthy tissue that patients need to recover. Cancers are among the most frightening and difficult-to-treat illnesses. Ranked as the leading cause of death and disability, cancer is actually an umbrella term that covers many different diseases. Each person faces a unique disease because cancers interact with the body's existing cells, so each case has a
Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells. The DNA sequence in cells can be changed as a result of copying errors during replication. If these changes whatever their cause are left uncorrected, both growing and non-growing somatic cells might gain many mutations that they could no longer function. The relevance of DNA damage and repair to the generation of cancer was obvious when it was recognized that everything that causes cancer also cause a change in the DNA sequence. Tumor suppressor genes are protective genes and normally they limit cell growth by monitoring the speed of cell division, repair mismatched DNA and control when a cell dies. When a tumor suppressor gene is mutated cells grow
Scientists need to know that all the stem cells completely change into the tissue to avoid negative side effects, like tumors, when the cells are implanted in patients. Scientists also try to experimentally treat diseases with no cure with stem cells by implanting them into animal models, like mice (Freedman 13).
Have you ever wondered how cancer forms? Well, cancer starts when a cell's DNA becomes
Human life starts from a fertilized cell which breaks down, again and again, an adult human body is composed of the abundance of cells and each one have their own specific function to perform. During adulthood, most of the cell does not duplicate except some cells continue to divide to replace the old or damaged cell in blood, skin and intestine. This growth is very controlled and no excessive cell growth takes place. But sometimes when a mutation occurs in one or more genes which causes unnecessary cell reproduction and as a conclusion, there is no control over the growth of cells. It is called malignant transformation and this is the starting of cancer (Hosick et al., 2015). There are many different types of cancer but the early stage diagnosis
The ability to manipulate the stem cell corresponding to a specific organ/tissue remains important. A type of stem cell that can be manipulated is the embryonic stem cell. These stem cells descend from embryos aging from three to five days (Watt) (Driskell). During earlier stages, scientists describe embryonic stem cells as “blastocysts” which contain over one-hundred and fifty cells (Watt) (Driskell). They duplicate into more cells or transform to any cell located in the body (Watt) (Driskell). This “duplication” allows embryonic stem cells to regenerate and repair diseased tissues. Embryonic stem cells gain importance in cancer treatments—if doctors diagnose patients with leukemia, then during chemotherapy, the doctor can infuse embryonic stem cells into the body. Since the cells are young, they can repair the targeted cell, aiding cancer treatments and the patient. In addition, this technique is used with another type of embryonic stem cell called “pluripotent stem cells”. Pluripotent stem cells originate as inner mast cells (cells
The concept of neurogenesis being confined to the embryonic stage became less obvious with the onset of discovery of neural stem cells maintained in two distinct regions of the mammalian adult brain namely dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain lateral ventricles14,18,19. What makes these neural stem cells a more credible target for oncogenic transformation? The continual presence of undifferentiated, mitotically active, self renewable stem cells at the apex of the hierarchy bundled in discrete germinal niches in the mammalian brain throughout the lifespan of an organism allows them to accumulate mutations, thus rendering them vulnerable for neoplastic reprogramming. There has been increasing evidence that the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that initiate and maintain the NSC developmental state are possibly deregulated in GB to emerge as Glioma initiating cells or Brain tumor stem cells20. The discovery of BTSC has high clinical significance in the neuro-oncology field, as evidenced by major diverse roles it plays in various aspects of tumor growth such as tumor initiation, maintenance, progression, angiogenesis and tumor recurrence owing to therapeutic resistance, some of which are described
May be a treatment for many cancers because doctors will be able to remove the organs affected by cancers and then use the patient's own stem cells to regrow their organ.
Stem cells are cells that have the capability to become any cell. These cells can be vital in saving the lives of those who have cancer and other diseases. Additionally,
Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into other cells or divide to produce more stem cells. There are two main types: pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. The adult stem cells only produce certain types of cells and are categorised as multipotent. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any body cell (Stemcellfoundation.net.au, 2015); for example embryonic stem cells were first identified by Martin Evans in 1981 at The University of Cambridge (New Scientist, 2015). The properties of embryonic stem cells make them useful for research and they have the potential to treat certain conditions. However, there are some potential risks associated with the use of such cells, for example, they possess some traits similar to cancer cells, therefore, they have been considered to contribute to the risk of tumour formation; and they are able to trigger an unwanted immune response. That said, research can be carried out to find a way around these potential risks (Master, McLeod and Mendez, 2007).
Cancer occurrs by the production of multiple mutations in a single cell that causes it to proliferate out of control. Cancer cells often different from their normal neighbors by a host of specific phenotypic changes, such as rapid division rate, invasion of new cellular territories, high metabolic rate, and altered shape. Some of those mutations may be transmitted from the parents through the germ line. Others arise de novo in the somatic cell lineage of a particular cell. Cancer-promoting mutations can be identified in a variety of ways. They can be cloned and studied to learn how they can be controlled.