Cancer : The Leading Cause Death Of The World Essay

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Introduction Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. An astounding average of 1.6 million deaths occur due to lung cancer every year, making it the most common type of cancer worldwide (1). Lung cancer is broadly classified into two types: small cell and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). 85% of all lung cancer cases are NSCLC. NSCLC has several different histologic subtypes, some of which are: squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. Of the three, adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 50% of all NSCLC cases, and is the most common subtype of NSCLC (2). Adenocarcinoma has been predominantly present in male smokers, however its occurrence in women, non-smokers, and young patients (below age 40) has been increasing as well (3). Consequently, mutations and gene alterations that may be targeted to treat adenocarcinoma are being highly studied, which include: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), Napsin A, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER2), c-ros oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), and rearranged during transfection (RET) (4). The EGFR gene mutations seem to be most significant in adenocarcinomas, specifically deletions in Exon 19, and point mutations in Exon 21 (5). Similarly, almost 5% of all NSCLCs are associated with a rearrangement in the ALK

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