Cancer Therapies And The Lack Of Effectiveness

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Introduction This review will provide a brief investigation of current cancer therapies and the lack of effectiveness that these treatments provide while treating the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the urgent need to develop new and effective cancer therapy options that can bridge the gap between the various types of cancer and effective cancer targeting. Chemotherapy and radiation treatments are commonly used as treatment options against cancer; however, one of the negative consequences is the possibility of incomplete tumor removal due to partial tumor penetration. Furthermore, these anticancer treatments lack targeting; chemotherapy and radiation will harm healthy tissue surrounding the cancer site, in addition to targeting malignant tissue. As a result of partial penetration and lack of malignant tissue targeting, the possibility exists that cancer will reoccur within the patient. Autophagy is the cellular process of discarding cellular products via lysosomes, such as proteins or organelles that have lost their function. Autophagy is a form of catabolic metabolism that allows the cells to recycle nutrients under stressful conditions. In a premalignant cell, autotrophy is the mechanism by which that inhibits cell proliferation. Cancer cells utilize autophagy as malignant cells must survive in harsh environments, such as hypoxia and nutrient depletion. In conflict with using radiation as a cancer treat is the fact that radiation promotes autophagy;

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