Candles have been around for many years, and their purpose has changed over time. They have been used for light, ceremonies, and also for the simple purpose of making a room smell good. By typing into Google “candles,” many different companies come up. However, the very first one listed is Yankee Candle. Yankee Candle has been a favorite candle company to many people, but their popularity did not happen overnight.
As the change in mass and temperature is small for both candle wax (and paraffin in this experiment), it is clear that there is little changes when these fuels are combusting in their physical states. This means that these fuels last longer but are an unreliable source of energy as a fuel. The change in temperature being small suggests that these alkanes produce poor heat output, however that fully contradicts their high experimental and theoretical heats of combustion and percentage yields. The fact that the change in temperature was so low can be experimental side effects. One being that candle wax particularly produces the extra energy source of light possibly more so than paraffin and even the experiment 1 alcohols. Another experimental error as to why the change in temperature isn’t very large could be due to the surrounds not being a fully insulator set up (calorimetry – experiment 1
From this lab we can conclude that the main sources for energy of candles are oxygen, the wick, and wax in gas form. Although oxygen was not tested, it is know that all candles need oxygen and that when the candle’s supply of oxygen is restricted the oxygen will be used up and go out. The wick was proven to be a fuel when the string in step 2 lit on fire. Wax in gas form was proven in step 5 where the candle was lit without using the wick. Solid wax was disproved in step 3 when it melted into liquid wax. But liquid wax was also disproven when trying in step 4 to light it on fire. The lab successfully showed the process in which a candle burns when we observed the flame. When the candle is lit it is very clear that the wick pulls up the melted
Gas Lighting also has negatives like when Gas light was first invented it was expensive only The wealthy could afford oil lamps in their homes, but the poor had to use candles
b) The candle could be a source of light since there wasn’t any electricity back then. In most houses there wasn’t many windows and if there was they were usually narrow due to the cold war.
Candles have been used as a source of light before electricity was discovered, and the light bulb invented. They are normally used in religious ceremonies. Scented candles are normally used in aromatherapy. Most birthday celebrations will not be complete without blowing the candles on a birthday cake. They are most useful as a light source during power failures that occur at night, although today, battery powered torches/lanterns are a preferred alternative.
The daily life of a candle maker was like a peasants. The houses were not very sanitary and nice. They had dirt floors and used mud the way we use cement today. The food was bland and plain. They usually had small gardens that had little vegetables in them. Also, they couldn’t have livestock unless they had enough money which very few peasants had. Clothing was plain with little pattern.
This article focuses on the Revolutionary period of Colonial Williamsburg when candles were a primary light source in homes. At this time in history there were four primary substances used in making candles, spermaceti, tallow, beeswax, and myrtle or bayberry wax. The three latter substances were produced in Virginia. Methods of making these candles and how they were shaped are described in the article.
Millhouse Candles has an article on their website with a timeline of candle history. “A Short History of Candles” outlines this history from 3000 BC to present. This outline is broken up into four periods, 3000 to 1 BC, 1 BC to 1500 AD, 1500 AD to 1799 AD, and 1800 AD to present. Each of these time periods contain facts about the cultures that were making candles, the materials used for the candles within the periods and a technological advancement for that time.
Materials: The materials that are needed are a timer to know when 30 minutes is up and it’s time to blow the candles out. Also a lighter to light the candle so they can burn. A pen for writing the data down and paper to wright the data down on. Also don’t forget the candles which are mainstay unscented and black cherry scented to be able to collect data.
The appearance and physical features of the candle made the quantitative data very different. When the students were observing the fact that a candle needs oxygen to burn, they needed to place a 400mL beaker over the candle. One of the possible errors could be the beaker was wet or it was placed too fast over the candle and this made the flame to go out. When this process was repeated the candle flame lasted longer, this could have also
Glow sticks, like many other everyday items, have chemistry involved with them. Glow sticks were discovered by Edwin Chandross in the 1960s. He was a young chemist at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Edwin Chandross actually discovered the glow stick on accident. All along he was just trying to find a general way to explain chemiluminescence. By mixing florescent light and hydrogen peroxide with oxalyl chloride, he discovered how to create a glowing chemical light. From Chandross original discovery a lab team called American Cyanamid, led by Michael M. Rahurt, created an oxalate ester named phenyl oxalate to replace the oxalyl chloride. This lab team then sold their new product to a group named Omniglow who went
The purpose of this lab was to observe the burning of a candle and to determine the rate at which a candle burns. In order to begin, we tightened our candle into the clay located in a weight boat. Then, we measured the initial height and mass. The original height was 8.5 cm. The original mass was 9.26 g. In addition, we noted that the candle was made of wax, had a spiral pattern, was pink with white stripes, and had a pencil-like shape.