Capital Budgeting Decision Process

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Capital Budgeting Decision Process

1. Introduction The maximization of shareholder wealth can be achieved through dividend policy and increasing share price of the mark value. In order to derive more profits, our company shall invest potential investments which always cover a number of years. Those investments involve substantial initial outlay at the outset and the process. The management is responsible to participate in the process of planning, analyzing, evaluating, selecting and making decisions to allocate the limited resource to those investments. This is called capital budgeting decision process. Budgeting acts as an important managerial tool in practice. It is budget for the major capital investment such as
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It is easy to understand and calculate, but it ignores cash. PB measures the number of years required so that the estimated returns can cover the initial outlay. It is also easy and simple to use, but it takes no account of cash flow after payback period. Both methods take no consideration of time value of money. To overcome those problems resulted from ARR and PB so as to make optimal decisions, the project appraisal process needs to consider the time value of money. Expected future cash flow of potential investments shall be discounted and added together to derive a lump sum of the present value using a given discount rate. Three types of discounted cash flow are NPV, IRR and PI. NPV is the difference between sum of present value and initial outlay for the proposed investment. A positive NPV indicates that the proposed investment is accepted and vice versa. NPV takes account of the time value of money and all relevant cash flows over the life of the project. However, it is difficult to understand and rely on to provide an available appropriate discount rate. IRR is the discount rate at which NPV is zero. If IRR is greater than the cost of capital, then the potential investment is recommendable. IRR is easy to understand and it excludes the drawbacks of ARR and PB that both ignore the time value of money. However, IRR often gives an unrealistic rate of return unless the calculated IRR is a reasonable rate for
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