Carbon Is The Fastest Most Abundant Element On Earth

3111 Words Sep 21st, 2014 13 Pages
Introduction: Carbon is the fourth most abundant element on Earth. It has many practical uses in a variety of different areas of science. Due to the wide variety of structures, which all have different properties, there are a variety of uses. Carbon is an element with the most allotropes, next to sulfur. The allotropes greatly differ in structure but are all widely used in modern production. Graphite, diamond and fullerenes are the three allotropes of carbon. Graphite has lubricating properties which makes it useful in pencils. The lubricating property exists due to the six membered rings existing in planes that can easily slide past one another. Graphite is the most thermodynamically stable allotrope at ordinary conditions. In the recent years, an increase in the study of a certain type of carbon has emerged. The type of carbon comes from the graphite structure. Graphite has the ability to be used in a wide range of areas such as, chemistry, physics, and engineering. The structure of graphite consists of numerous layers of carbon stacked on top of each other, held together by Van der Waal 's forces. Due to the structure, which can be seen in Figure 1, graphite has unique electronic and mechanical properties, mainly when each layer is considered separately. The isolated layers are commonly called graphene. The structure of graphene is a one-atom thick layer, with the carbons contained in a hexagonal pattern. The structure has a high quality crystal lattice…
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