Cardiovascular Disease Essay

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Role in cardiovascular disease If there is no decline in peripheral resistance, high intake of dietary Na increases extracellular volume and cardiac output leading to increase in BP. (16). Na-induced hypertension may occur by different impaired physiological mechanisms including renal function, fluid hormone, salt sensitivity, smooth muscle in peripheral vasculature and sympathetic nervous system, as the physiological mechanism of Na-induced increase in BP (17). Although Na+ associated with chloride had different effect, compared to when it is binding to other anion such as bicarbonatebut since 1904, it has been considered as as a major risk for CVD and BP, in the form of NaCl. (18). the sodium chloride might have more important role in…show more content…
However in meta-analysis, after excluding the RCT on heart failure (HF) patients, all CV events showed significant decrease of 20% (29). Since no large, long-term RCTs have been performed to examine the effects of Na restriction on CV events (30), most of the evidence has been derived from prospective cohort studies (31), which have known methodological limitations (32). Cobb et al. reported that diverse studies showed direct, inverse, J-shaped or null associations between Na intake and CV events with 77%, 75%, 100% or 100% systematic error and 31%, 38%, 50% or 0% reverse causality error, respectively (32). A pooled analysis on four large prospective cohort studies in 49 countries, using diverse methods for Na assessment in various populations, have found a J or U- shaped association between Na intake and CVD mortality and morbidity (33). A meta-analysis of 23 observational studies showed that Na intake less than 3g/day, increased all-cause mortality and thus argued the recommendation of Na intake reduction except in hypertensives or subjects with high Na intake (more than 6 g/day), unless a well done RCT confirm the safety and beneficial effect (34). It was assumed that although low Na consumption is expected to
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