Cardiovascular System Essays

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The cardiovascular system, which consists of the heart and blood vessels, is the circulatory systems in our body. The major function of the system is transportation; the heart is the system pump and the blood vessels are the delivery routes. The heart transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances vital to the body’s homeostasis to and from the cells by using the blood as a medium.
The heart is a cone-shaped organ approximately the size of a fist with an apex and a base. It is located within the mediastinum or medial cavity of the thorax. The heart is enclosed within a double walled pericardium, a fibroserous sac. The pericardium has a superficial fibrous pericardium and deep two-layer serous pericardium. The
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Left ventricle pumps the blood into the aorta, where the blood is supplied to the body tissues by the systemic arteries.
Heart valves ensure one way blood flow through heart. The atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the atria and the ventricles prevents the back flow of blood in to the atria while the ventricles contract. Chordae tendinae anchor AV values to papillary muscles. The left AV valve, the mitral or bicuspid valve consists of two cusps of endocardium. The right atrioventricular valve, the tricuspid valve, has three cusps. The second sets of valve are the semilunar valves. The pulmonary semilunar valves lie between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk. Aortic semilunar valves lie between ventricle and the aorta. Semilunar valves prevent the backflow of blood into the ventricle.
The hearts function as a double pump that serves two circulations. The pulmonary pump in the right side of heart is provided for the gas exchange in the body, and the systemic circulation in the left side provides the functional blood supply to all body tissues. The functional blood to the heart is provided by the coronary arteries. Right coronary artery supplies the heart through the posterior interventricular and marginal artery branches; and the left coronary artery supplies the heart via anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery. The myocardium is drained by great, small, and middle cardiac veins which
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