Carl Hovland's Why We Fight Experiments

Decent Essays
After the Second World War, media effects scholars proposed a more nuanced preconception of the media's influence on the public. Limited media effects theories suggested that media are far less powerful than previously assumed and the effects could not be generalized. Therefore, the masses become individuals, who are active by selecting and interpreting media messages and are not easily persuaded. This assumption is closely connected to Carl Hovland's Why We Fight experiments, which proved the ineffectiveness of one-sided propaganda in comparison to a more balanced view. In addition, the selective exposure theory of Joseph Klapper concluded that individuals prefer to surround themselves with media messages, which underline their already preexisting
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