Case Study 6 Essay

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Advanced Pathophysiology
Case Study 6

Case Study 6
Scenario: John is a 4 year-old boy who was admitted for chemotherapy following diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He had a white blood cell count of 250,000. Clinical presentation included loss of appetite, easily bruised, gum bleeding, and fatigue. Physical examination revealed marked splenomegaly, pale skin color, temperature of 102°F, and upper abdomen tenderness along with nonspecific arthralgia. Pathophysiology signs and symptoms
The primary pathophysiological etiology for signs, symptoms and laboratory findings in 4 year-old John’s case study are secondary splenomegaly as a result of primary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Because of its proximity to
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This subsequently causes a drop in red blood cells, platelets and normal white blood cell production. As an acute form of leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal within weeks or months if left untreated (Nazki et al., 2012).
Chemotherapy in ALL
The defining goal is to eliminate all evidence of the cancer cells with the use of cytotoxic agents. Chemotherapeutic agents are chosen because of their ability to interfere with oncologic cell division. The treatment of ALL involves 3 phases: remission induction, consolidation, and maintenance therapy. Pediatric patients with ALL are often given 8 or more months of intensive chemotherapy. This is often followed by maintenance therapy of two or more years (Gedaly-Duff et al., 2006). Most treatment protocols use systemic chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy (McCance & Huether, 2010). According to a study conducted by McDonald & Mc Carthy (2005), success of chemotherapy and remission depends on “aggressive induction chemotherapy followed by delayed intensification and maintenance therapy, p. 809.”
Side effects of chemotherapy

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