What is the Human Papillomavirus? Commonly known as HPV, it is an infection that spreads through sexual contact. There are over one hundred different types of HPV; several types cause genital warts, while other high risk strands can lead to cancer of the cervix, anus, vagina, and penis. Because HPV is often asymptomatic, many people are unaware of their infection status, and thus, their potential for transmitting the virus to a sexual partner. The significance of the Human Papillomavirus is that fifty percent of Americans who are sexually active will contract it within their lives, and at any given point there are twenty million Americans already infected with it (“By the numbers: HPV Vaccine”).
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is very common throughout the United States and worldwide (World Health Organization (WHO), 2016). There are over 100 different forms of the virus with 13 of these types being capable of causing cancer (WHO, 2016). HPV can lead to the development of serious health problems. Theses health problems are especially an issue for adolescent women due to the highly increasing STD rates among this age group (Kostas-Polston, Johnson-Mallard & Berman, 2012). There is a vaccine for many of the common types of HPV, however, many parents are refusing to vaccinate their daughters for various reasons. With the rising cases of STDs, less birth
In addition, the immune system of most women will usually suppress or eliminate HPVs. This is very important because only an ongoing persistent infection has the potential to lead to cervical cancer (HPV). Eleven thousand cases of this kind of cancer were confirmed in 2007 in the United States; the amount undiagnosed is still unclear but believed to be in the tens of thousands. But to give some perspective of the problem you need to understand its effects on a global level. On the world wide scale cervical cancer strikes nearly half a million women each year, claiming more than a quarter of a million lives. “High risk” HPV types 16 and 18 are implicated in Seventy percent of cervical cancers and are hence selected for vaccine targets (The HPV).
The HPV virus has gone unseen by many until the recent controversy over the vaccine. However, this virus is thought to be one of the world’s most wide spread STD’s. “According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 6.2 million women and men are newly infected every year” with HPV. HPV has over 100 strains, with more than thirty that are sexually transmitted. Some of these strains are known to cause cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, or penis cancers and others can cause genital warts. “Studies have found the vaccine to be almost 100% effective in preventing diseases caused by the four HPV types covered by the vaccine—including precancers of the cervix, vulva and vagina, and genital warts” (“HPV Questions and
There are two HPV vaccines available for females (Cervarix and Gardasil) that protect against cervical cancer (CDC, 2013). The CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization
Prophylactic vaccination against high risk human papilloma virus 16 and 18 represents an exciting means of protection against HPV related malignancy. However, this strategy alone, even if there is a level of cross protection against other oncogenic viruses, cannot completely prevent cervical cancer. In some countries cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by up to 80 percent although this decline has now reached a plateau with current cancers occurring in patients who have failed to attend for screening or where the sensitivity of the tests have proved inadequate. Cervical screening is inevitably associated with significant anxiety for the many women who require investigation and treatment following abnormal cervical cytology. However, it is vitally important to stress the need for continued cervical screening to complement vaccination in order to optimize prevention in vaccines and prevent cervical cancer in older women where the value of vaccination is currently unclear. It is likely that vaccination will ultimately change the natural history of HPV disease by reducing the influence of the highly oncogenic types HPV 16 and 18. In the long term this is likely to lead to an increase in recommended screening intervals. HPV vaccination may also reduce
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. Approximately 14 million Americans are infected with HPV each year ("HPV Vaccine for Preteens and Teens,"). HPV also causes several types of cancers, such as vaginal cancer and anal cancer. More than 27,000 women and men are affected by a HPV-related cancer annually ("The Link Between HPV and Cancer,"). The most common HPV cancers for women and men are cervical cancer, and oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers, respectively. Research has demonstrated that many cancers caused by HPV can be prevented by the HPV vaccine, which is administered in 3 doses over 6 months ("The
This does not offer immunity against 30% of HPV strains that are at fault for causing cervical cancer. (“Comprehensive Cancer Information - National Cancer Institute.”) Although, cervical cancer may be the second most common form of cancer found in women, it is also the easiest form to cure. Based on information by Doctor Diane Harper, whom is the lead researcher for the Gardasil vaccine, the Gardasil shot is completely unnecessary. "70 percent of all HPV infections resolve themselves without treatment within a year. Within two years, the number climbs to 90 percent. Of the remaining 10 percent of HPV infections, only half will develop into cervical cancer, which leaves little need for the vaccine." Even if women do become vaccinated with Gardasil, typical pap smears and routine checkups are still going to be necessary. That alone has already been slicing the number of cervical cancer cases per year by four percent. (“ Weekly Blitz”) Merck, the creators of Gardasil, do not even know the current duration of the vaccine. They have estimated that the effectiveness of Gardasil will last for approximately five years, and a booster vaccine will be necessary. Furthermore, Merck has been known to do anything in order to sell their medicine, they created the drug Vioxx which was a total disaster. Merck did not allot nearly enough time to test the efficiency of the Gardasil shot. Over the course of a
The benefits of receiving the HPV vaccine is according to the CDC (2017) is that it prevents genital warts and cancer is sexually active individuals. This is highly important because the infection of HPV can lead to cancer in the individual. According to the NIH National Cancer Institute (2016), states that all three of the available HPV vaccines that are out on todays market prevent HPV infection on HPV type 16 and 18. These two types of HPV are considered to be at extremely high risk for cervical cancer (NIH National Cancer Institute, 2016). The vaccine Gardasil specifically prevents HPV type 6 and 11 from giving an individual genital warts (NIH National Cancer Institute, 2016). Gardasil 9 vaccine prevents the same HPV types as Gardisal plus the following other HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 48, which are considered to be high risk types for causing cancer (NIH National Cancer Institute, 2016). The third vaccine Cervarix, is no longer used in the United States to administer to patients (CDC, 2016).
Almost all cervical carcinomas are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer can be a life-threating disease. However, over recent years the occurrence of cervical cancer has declined as well as the chance of dying from it. A huge contributing factor to this decline is the importance of a regular pap smear. A pap smear can find cervical pre-cancer before it turns into cancer. Recently, a vaccine for HPV, has been on the market, which provides close to a 100% protection against pre-cancer and general warts. HPV and cervical cancer are two disease that are closely related. However, each disease effects not only similar populations, but also different populations, as well as having its own signs and symptoms, detection procedures,
Gardasil is a vaccine used to prevent certain strains of Human Papillomavirus, or HPV; which may lead to cervical cancer. Although Gardasil has been available since 2006; there is concern about its validity as a prophylactic measure against HPV. With no long term research on the efficacy of this vaccination and the growing list of side effects; there
Cervical cancer is a type of abnormal and malignant cell growth on the cervix (birth canal), which causes the common death for American Women. Infected by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) through sexual contact is the main contributor to cervical cancer. According to American Cancer Society’s (ACS) (2017) estimation, around 12,820 people will newly have cervical cancer and about 4,210 people will die from that in 2017. Therefore, it is urgent to decrease the rate of cervical cancer at women. A three-shot Gardasil series vaccine approved by the FDA for girls started to prevent cervical cancer in 2006. There are more than forty types of HPVs and the majority
Approximately 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer occur each year worldwide, 260,000 of which are fatal. In the U.S., it is estimated that there were over 9,700 cases of cervical cancer in 2006, and of these 3,700 resulted in deaths”. Vaccinations are one of the most successful public health approaches to preventing and controlling infectious diseases. According to the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices the vaccine has been proven to be virtually 100% effective against the two types of HPV that are responsible for some 70% of cervical cancers.
Among the many arguments for mandatory HPV vaccination, the foremost is that it is an important medical achievement and a major public health milestone. This vaccine has proven to be one-hundred percent effective in preventing the 4 HPV strains that are responsible for seventy percent of cervical cancers and ninety percent of genital warts. In addition, no serious side effects have been identified. Because this vaccine is a preventive measure, administration before onset of sexual activity is ideal; however, even females who have been sexually active can still benefit from this vaccination (Perkins et al., 2010). Nationally and internationally, the HPV vaccine will significantly reduce disease burden by reducing monetary and psychological costs of invasive procedures that remove precancerous and cancerous lesions. By combining vaccination with routine Pap smear screening, these public health efforts have the remarkable opportunity to eradicate cervical cancer (Ramet et al., 2011).
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause cervical cancers, and some cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines (Gardasil® and Cervarix®) can block new infections from a subset of the most prevalent HPV types, but have shown no therapeutic effect against pre-existing diseases. No effective therapeutics exists at present, and the mechanisms of HPV-associated disease progression and cancer are not well understood.