Case Study Of HPV

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped virus with double-stranded circular genome. The genome encodes for 6 early proteins, which are necessary for virus replication; and 2 late proteins, which are required to build viral structural proteins. Mucosal tissues are the target for HPV to infect, especially through anogenital region. Indeed, Infection with HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Up to 80% of sexually active adults are infected once in their lifetimes with HPV (McNeil vaccine). There are numerous types of HPV, with 40 types are known to infect human through genital tract. HPV can be designated as high-risk (oncogenic virus), which means they are highly potential to develop cancer. Specifically, HPV 16 and…show more content…
Gardasil contains VLPs of HPV16, HPV18, HPV6 and HPV11 that are produced in yeast (5). Both Cervarix and Gardasil target oncogenic HPV types, but Gardasil, with addition of VLPs of HPV6 and HPV11, also target the risk of genital warts. (8). The newest vaccine, Gardasil 9 was approved by FDA in 2014. It protects the vaccine receivers against an even wider range of HPV types including HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 (1). Since the vaccines are only made from capsid protein without involving any live, killed virus or even viral DNA, these vaccines cannot cause any HPV-related illness and therefore very safe. In the other hand, L1 capsid protein is a strong immunogen that induces the development of neutralizing antibodies. In addition, aluminum salt adjuvant is used in both vaccine formulas to precipitate and ensure slow release of the HPV antigen in order to enhance antibody responses (5). The combination of all these components creates very safe yet effective vaccines against HPV.
Both Cervarix and Gardasil were found during the trials to provide up to 100% protection against persistent cervical infections with HPV16 and HPV18 and the cervical cell transformation that can lead to cancer. With regards to the newest vaccine Gardasil 9, the trials showed that it is not only as effective as Cervarix and Gardasil in preventing HPV 16 and 18 but also 97% effective in
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