Case Study

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Introduction In this case we get an entire scenario about how the Japan deflation set in, what were the effects of the deflation on the economy as well as on the people of Japan. It also mentions about the various reasons because of which Japan was in such a tight grip of Deflation, Depression, Demographics and Debts Guides us through the steps taken by the government in order to curb this deflation. Imparts a great knowledge to us about the various economic terms like deflation, self-liquidating credit, Non-Self Liquidating Credit and how the people and economy of a country is affected by these. Free markets economies are subject to cycles. Economic cycles consist of fluctuating periods of economic expansion and contraction as measured…show more content…
A central bank can inject money into an economy without regard for an established target interest rate (such as the fed funds rate in the U.S.) through the purchase of government bonds in open-market operations. This is when a central bank purchases a bond, in which case it effectively exchanges it for cash, which increases the money supply. This is known as the monetization of debt. (It should be noted that open-market operations are also used to attain and maintain target interest rates, but when a central bank monetizes the debt, it does so without regard for a target interest rate.) In 2001, the Bank of Japan began to target the money supply instead of interest rates, which helped to moderate deflation and stimulate economic growth. However, when a central bank injects money into the financial system, banks are left with more money on hand, but also must be willing to lend that money out. This brings us to the next problem Japan faced: a credit crunch. Credit Crunch A credit crunch is an economic scenario in which banks have tightened lending requirements and for the most part, do not lend. They may not lend for several reasons, including: 1) the need to hold onto reserves in order repair their balance sheets after suffering loses, which happened to Japanese banks that had invested heavily in real estate, and 2) there might be a general pullback

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