Case Study Paper On Stroke

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1. Introduction

1.1. Introduction
Stroke is a leading neurological disorder and causes long-term disability worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated that 15 million individuals1 are suffering from stroke annually worldwide, most of them are from developed countries and Stroke is the third leading cause of death and primary cause of disability. Despite advanced medical treatment intervened still 58% of patients still die or end up with severe disabilities. Following stroke the disability is sever in older population comparing to normal survivors. After 6 month of post-stroke, the 50% of survivors represents hemiparesis, 30% were unable to walk without support, 26% were dependent on Activities of daily living and 26% were hospitalized
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After ensuring patency of airways, adequate general circulation and checking blood glucose levels, CT scan is done to differentiate between ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, the commonest being an ischemic stroke.
General modalities of treatment are (1) medical support, (2) intravenous thrombolysis, (3) endovascular revascularization, (4) antithrombotic treatment, (5) neuroprotection, and (6) rehabilitation, often in stroke centers. Modalities 2-4 are for ischemic stroke only.
Medical treatment specific to stroke is to ensure sufficient cerebral perfusion to the surrounding ischemic penumbra. High blood pressure is treated according to specific norms; routine lowering is detrimental. Fever and blood glucose levels are controlled and if there is increased intracranial pressure, it is treated. All these factors are shown to have a significant role in the outcome of stroke patients.
Thrombolysis is induced by the use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) within 3 hours of onset of stroke is approved in most countries. Use of intravenous rtPA has proven to improve clinical outcome in ischemic stroke and is cost-effective and
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