Schizophrenia is a disorder that is characterized by a broken thought process and poor emotional responses. Typical symptoms of this disorder include delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, social dysfunctions,
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person 's reported experiences. Genetics and early environment, as well as psychological and social processes, appear to be important contributory factors. Some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. The many possible combinations of symptoms have triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of separate syndromes. Despite the
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Several exams may be included such as a physical exam or psychiatric evaluation. A doctor or mental health professional checks for symptoms by observing appearance and demeanor, and asks about thoughts, moods, delusions, hallucinations, substance use, and potential for violence or suicide. The doctor may request imaging studies, such as an MRI or CT scan. They may also use the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association. A discussion about family history may also be included in the diagnosis, since schizophrenia is primarily
Bipolar Disorder Definition Bipolar Disorder is an increasingly common mood disorder that effects millions of people worldwide. In order to understand the plight of any psychiatric patient suffering from this ailment or to be prepared to treat this disease, it is pertinent to first fully understand what this mental disorder truly is. The first misconception surrounding bipolar disorder is that it is just one disease, contrarily it can be divided into two different sub categories. The National Institute for Mental Health defines Bipolar I Disorder as “manic or mixed episodes that last at least seven days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks”. Likewise, they define Bipolar II disorder as “a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but no full-blown manic or mixed episodes”.
Jesse Silva Psychology 101 3/30/18 The Cost of Bipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder can be best described as an emotional rollercoaster which affects approximately 2 million Americans every year (Demetriades). Although the exact cause of this illness is still unknown an individual has a higher possibility of getting the illness if it is seen in past family members (DMS-IV-TR). This disorder consists of two stages which are the mania stage and then the depressive stage which is then also classified as Bipolar I or Bipolar II. The main differences between the classifications is that in Bipolar I, the individual mostly experiences one or more manic episodes, while a Bipolar II patient experiences more depressive stages. During the mania stage the
Most Likely Diagnosis The first most likely diagnosis would be acute gastroenteritis. According to Aftab and Churgay (2012), the patient has acute gastroenteritis is “often defined as the onset of diarrhea in the absence of chronic disease, with or without abdominal pain, fever, nausea, or vomiting”. This 18-month year old patient has had 6 episodes of diarrhea and 4 episodes of vomiting per day that occurred for two days. The patient also has no history of having a chronic disease.
Bipolar Disorder 6 Conclusion Bipolar disorder is a costly and disabling disease. Patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with another illness in their initial presentation. Major challenges to accurate diagnosis include difficulties in differentiating bipolar depression from unipolar depression. Significant heterogeneity between different patients of bipolar disorder, such that they would report different
Schizophrenia consists of a broad spectrum of diagnostic criteria (both cognitive and emotional dysfunctions) that cause problems in every day functioning (Barlow et al., 2015). This criteria includes the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized/catatonic behaviour, and/or negative symptoms, such as diminished emotional expression (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The prevalence rate of this disorder is estimated to be in the range of 0.2% to 1.5% in the general population (Barlow et al., 2015).
The Bipolar Enigma Stephen Ray Harris Monday, Wednesday, & Friday Class (9:00-9:50) Dr. Marc Klippenstine East Central University April 11, 2016 Abstract Currently effecting between 2-4% of the overall population and as one of the leading causes of homelessness, suicide, and hospitalization, bipolar disorder is yet, still one of the most perplexing, as well as the most misunderstood mental disorders out there. With this particular disorder, the complexity arises given one’s predisposition, diversity, and non-specific range of hazards for said disorder; thusly, making a cure, or at best, prevention, difficult, if not impossible, if not for appropriate early intervention. Bipolar not only puts a strain on the economic condition of our country, but on the individual, as well as society as a whole; given, its propensity to bring about financial difficulties, employment difficulties, and poor self-esteem and this is simply three examples, out of quite possible a largely finite numeral of disparities realized within the afflicted, as well as the overall populace. Nothing left of what we deem normal will be left untainted, and with limited governmental funding and a lack of knowledge, mankind’s naïve, uncaring nature will only bring about less than desirable responses to treatment, medicinally or otherwise; given, the disorder is far more difficult to treat later in life. With the proximal factors of which occur within one 's own environment, such as acute
Running head: BIPOLAR DISORDER Bipolar Disorder: The Facts and the Myths John Payne American Public University Abstract This paper is a intended to teach the reader about what Bipolar Disorder is and how it is treated. The facts on bipolar disorder will be discussed, as well as the taboos associated with the disorder and complete myths that have created such stigmas about having and living with bipolar disorder. This paper will discuss what bipolar disorder is, how it is diagnosed, and how it is treated.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that is often characterized by the general public as a mood swing disorder. In reality bipolar disorder is more severe than just a mood swings, especially in children. Bipolar disorder comes with two forms, type I and type II. Both forms of bipolar disorder are severe and both types should receive treatment. For the purpose of this research bipolar type I will be the focus. More specifically this research will be focusing on bipolar type I in children and youth. Bipolar type I is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) as characterized by multiple episodes of mania that last at least a week or by episodes of mania that hospitalization is needed (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014;”Bipolar disorder”,
Bipolar Disorder & Edgar Allen Poe Bipolar disorder, otherwise known as manic-depressive disorder, is a severe psychological condition of rapid alterations of a contrasting momentary conscious state of mind. Conditions of this particular illness range in severity from an extreme high (Bipolar 1 or Mania) or to a dangerously low (Bipolar 2 or Depression). In addition, it is also common for an individual diagnosed with the illness to experience psychiatric indications of misconceptions. Onset traits of bipolar become present within young adulthood, generally within the age of 20, after an individual has endured recurring alterations for an abnormally extended time. BP is categorized into four types and the disorder has been linked to enhanced
Bipolar disorder is unique by means of disorderly dramatic mood shifts that alternate among depressed lows and elation (mania). Manic symptoms can consist of: irritation, anger, elevated liveliness; swift talking and feelings, decrease necessity for sleep, elevated sense of arrogance, trouble concentrating, distressed judgment, amplified irresponsibility (frequently concerning money, drugs, alcohol, or sex). Bipolar disorder afflicts up to 10 million people in the United States and is the fifth leading cause of disability worldwide. The disorder affects males and females equally. Bipolar disorder can occur at any time although the disease typically presents before age 35. Persons between the ages of 15 and 25 years have the utmost risk of developing this disorder. However, the impediment amid the initial signs and symptoms of the disorder and appropriate diagnosis and treatment is often ten
(2000) explained that the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder is between 2.6% and 6.5%, which can be compared to the prevalence of drug abuse which is 4.4%. Bipolar can be classified as a spectrum disorder because it forms an umbrella for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymia, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Unfortunately, bipolar spectrum disorders often go undiagnosed and therefore untreated. With that, Hirschfelt et all (2000), emphasizes the importance of recognizing this disorder. With recognition, these individuals can seek intervention for this disorder and decrease its symptoms and its progression. One way to diagnose this disorder is to screen for it by performing a mood disorder questionnaire. The researchers created a one-page, self-report, paper-and-pencil inventory that can be easily evaluated and administered. The questions were derived from the DSM-IV criteria at the time, but have been updated to the newest version’s clinical