Case Study of Graves' Disease Essay

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Introduction
The case study selected focused on Grave’s disease an autoimmune disorder involving over production of thyroid hormones triidiothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). In the United States it is the most common form of hyperthyroidism. The over taxed organ then becomes enlarged (goiter). This case study report will discuss the clinical progression and presentation of this disease, define and describe what an autoimmune disorder is, outline what clinical testing is performed for proper diagnosis, and the treatments involved for management of the disease and those afflicted.
An autoimmune disorder is when an individual’s own adaptive immune system begins producing antibodies against its own cells/tissues. This in turn causes a
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According to my case study of an individual with the disease, progression of symptoms coincided with stressors involving life dilemmas and other illnesses (Vita, 2009). “Stress affects the immune system either directly or indirectly through the nervous and endocrine systems. These immune modulations may contribute to the development of autoimmunity as well as the susceptibility to autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Stress can be one of the environmental factors for thyroid autoimmunity” (Mizokami, 2005).
Physical signs/symptoms of the disease involve: bulging eyes (proptosis), vision issues, low tolerance to heat (increased sweating), massive weight loss, redness and thickening of the skin of the shins (pretibial myxedema), increased heartbeat/palpitations and fits of thyroid storm if untreated (Graves' Disease and Thyroid Foundation, 2014). The eyes are affected due to the similarities of this tissue to the thyroid. “The eyes are particularly vulnerable to Graves' eye disease, because the autoimmune attack often targets the eye muscles and connective tissue within the eye socket. This likely occurs because these tissues contain proteins that appear similar to the immune system as those of the thyroid gland” (Kellog Eye Center, 2014). TSI assaults tissues of the thyroid and the eyes.
Other related symptoms are caused by the homeostatic connection of the
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