Some examples include the following: clavicle, coccyx, femur, fibula, foramen magnum, mandible, maxilla, metatarsals, ossify, phalanges, radius, scapula, sternum, suture, tibia, ulna, and vertebra. All of these terms are associated with the skeletal system. The mandible, maxilla, and foramen magnum are located in the cervical vertebrae. The clavicle, scapula, and sternum are located in the thoracic vertebrae. The lumbar vertebra contains the humerus, ulna, and radius. The coccyx is located in the sacral vertebrae. The femur, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges, and tibia are located in the appendicular skeleton. The sutures are located in the skull. The vertebrae is the backbone of the body. Ossification is the formation of bone. These terms are important in knowing and learning the skeletal system.
s Flat bones Irregular bone Sesamoid bones Anatomy of a Long Bone Epiphyses Metaphyses Epiphyseal growth plate Epiphyseal growth line Diaphysis Periosteum Medullary cavity Endosteum Articular cartilage Microscopic Anatomy Compact bone Osteons Spongy bone Trabeculae Bone Formation Intramembranous ossification Endochondral ossification Cells in Bone Osteogenic cells Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Hormonal Control of Bone Calcitonin Parathyroid hormone Osteology of the Axial Skeleton Frontal Parietal Temporal Zygomatic arch Mastoid process Occipital Foramen magnum Occipital condyles Sphenoid Sella turcica Greater wing Lesser wing Ethmoid Cribriform plate Crista galli Nasal Maxilla Alveolar process Palatine process Zygomatic Zygomatic arch Lacrimal Palatine Inferior nasal conchae
The ﬁbula (slender long bone that lies parallel with and on the lateral side of the
Loyola University Medical School states that the gluteus medius’ origin is the outer surface of the ilium between posterior and middle gluteal lines, and that its insertion is the posterolateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur. It also states that its action abducts and medially rotates the hip, and tilts
1.a) Contractile protein molecules that are seen in skeletal muscle fibres are actin (thin filaments) and myosin (thick filaments). Together, they produce the force of muscle contractions by forming cross bridges, and moving via a power stroke. The regulatory proteins that are seen within a skeletal muscle are troponin and tropomyosin. These proteins play a role in starting or stopping muscle contractions. When a muscle fibre is relaxed, there are no contractions because actin is unable to bind with the cross bridge. This is because tropomyosin covers the myosin binding sites on the actin proteins. In addition, troponin is not bound to calcium when a muscle fibre is relaxed, thus keeping the tropomyosin in its blocking position. When calcium enters the muscle fibres, it binds with troponin. This binding causes the tropomyosin to move away
The knee is a hinge joint which gives the legs mobility. The muscles and ligaments of this joint allows flexion and extension of the leg. “Because the knee supports the majority of the body weight, it is at risk of overuse and traumatic injuries” (France). The knee is composed of 3 major bones; the femur, tibia, and the fibula. The femur is the biggest bone in the human body, the inferior end flares out into two rounded landmarks called femoral condyles. Their name comes from the side of the body they are on, which is where we get Lateral Femoral Condyle and Media Femoral Condyle. Superiorly to these condlyes are the medial and lateral femoral epicondyles. The bones inferior to the femur are the Tibia and Fibula. The superior end of the Tibia flares out into slightly concave structures called the Tibial Plateaus. A crescent wedge shape of cartilage sits in each plateau. These are the Medial Meniscus and the Lateral Meniscus. This cartilage acts as a shock absorber and distributes forces. “The menisci are bathed by the synovial fluid of the knee” (France). The meniscus is what separates the each side of the Tibia and Femur and the transverse ligament connects each menisci. There is a circular bone on the
The rat phrenic nerve preparation is very useful as it teaches us not only a lot about neuro muscular and muscle physiology but also the pharmacodynamics of different drugs such as neuromuscular blocking agents and determining their potency at blocking the neuromuscular junction. This preparation was originally used for the bioassay of tubocurarine (Bülbring et al, 1997). However there are a few limitations to this prep, for example it is hard to differentiate between the different neuromuscular blockers, whether they are depolarizers or non-depolarizers because depolarizers fail to reverse the effects of non-depolarizers. As a result of this, another prep is preferred namely the chick sciatic nerve-tibialis anticus muscle (Vogel, 2013).
The movements succeed when the muscles get shorter. Antagonist and agonist muscles often occur in pairs, called antagonistic pairs. As one muscle contracts, the other relaxes. An example of an antagonistic
Fibula- it is a long bone in the lower leg. It runs parallel to the shinbone (tibia). Its plays a role of stabilizing the ankle and also supporting the muscles of the lower leg. http://www.innerbody.com/image_skelfov/skel27_new.html
The sagittal axis splits the body with an imaginary line into left and right halves and the frontal plane splits the body with an imaginary line into front and back halves. The movements that occur in the frontal plane about the sagittal axis are lateral flexion – tilting the head to one side, radial and ulnar deviation of the little finger from the wrist to the side, inversion and eversion which tilt the sole of the foot towards or away from the midline of the body, adduction and abduction which is moving a body apart towards or away from respectively of the body’s midline (arms / legs for
Starting from ASIS in the anterior plane the iliac crest comes from the lateral plane to the posterior plane, ending in the posterior superior iliac spine\thinspace(PSIS) in the posterior plane. The PSIS is the superior point of the greater sciatic notch.