Cause. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Is Complex Autoimmune

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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is complex autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The body’s autoimmune cells fail to distinguish a diseased cell or foreign organism from its own healthy cells. Consequently, the autoimmune system attacks its own cells, causing inflammation in multiple systems including; the kidneys, skin, heart, lungs, hematopoetic, and nervous system.
An estimation of 20 to 100 different genetic factors make a person susceptible to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Simon, Harvery, and David Zieve 3). However, one gene alone is not enough to cause the disease. Genetic factors may cause immunological defects that makes autoimmune cells inefficient in clearing of
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Symptoms & Diagnostic tests

Symptoms may manifest over a long period (months or years) or very rapidly. There is no specific order, number of symptoms, intensity, or time which SLE symptoms may manifest.
Symptoms: Butterfly (malar) rash across cheeks and nose, skin rash (which appears as scaly raised red patches), photosensitivity, oral ulcers, arthritis in two or more joints (joints will have tenderness and swelling but will not have become deformed), pleuritic, endocarditis, kidney disease and kidney damage, severe neurologic disease such as seizures and/or psychosis, blood disorders including low red and white blood cell and platelet counts, immunologic abnormalities (positive tests for anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anti-SM, anti-Ro, and anti-LA antibodies), and positive antinuclear antibody (ANA) test.


The diagnosis of SLE is difficult. Autoimmune diseases are a group of related conditions that present similar symptoms. One autoimmune disease is not a unique disease with its own unique symptoms. Instead autoimmune diseases are a group of related conditions (see fig 2 and table 2). Currently there are no definite number of how many autoimmune diseases exist; however, there is a range of autoimmune diseases that varies from 80 to as

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