Causes And Treatment Of Pancreatic Cancer

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INTRODUCTION Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death Worldwide. It is the eighth most common cause of death from cancer in both individuals. Higher incidence is noted as thirteen because of the very poor prognosis. Less than 5% of all patients are still alive only for 5 years after initial diagnosis. It is rarely detected in the early stages and conventional cancer treatment failed due to high resistance to chemotherapy. Pancreatic cancer develops gradually in a series of steps known as pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This is the most prominent stage of cancer. During the early steps, slight changes are seen in a small number of genes. In the later steps, there are abnormalities in several genes and the duct cells become dysfunctional. The most common DNA changes in these conditions affects the KRAS oncogene. KRAS is the mutated gene in PDAC and this gene is said to drive cancer development and progression. This was observed in mouse as human pancreatic tissue is not available for biopsy and animal tissue have the ease of genetic manipulation and cost effective. Inflammation is the main phenomenon that is said to promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerates pancreatic cancer development. PDAC is caused by immune dysfunction that is contributed by immunosuppressive cell types such as TAM’s, MDSC’s, tumor promoting immune cells and abnormal inflammatory cells. CURRENT APPROACH The role of the immune response in the development
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