Causes And Treatment Of Viral Abortion

1646 Words Sep 30th, 2016 7 Pages
IntroductionThe protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is a Toxoplasma-like organism that may cause neosporosis in dogs and cattleand less frequently in other animals such as goats, sheep, deer,rhinoceros, llamas and alpacas (Dubey et al., 2002). N. caninumoocyst-contaminated food or water is considered the main routeof infection for cattle (De Marez et al., 1999), and there is also evi-dence for the vertical transmission of N. caninum between damsand calves (Thurmond et al., 1997; Schares et al., 1998). N. caninum is generally accepted to be a major cause of infectious abortion incattle worldwide (Reichel et al., 2013). In pregnant cows, infec-tion with N. caninum can lead to several outcomes including earlyfetal death and re-absorption; abortion, stillbirth or parturition ofa deformed calf and birth of clinically normal but infected offspring(Dubey et al., 2006). Clinical signs, other than abortion, have beenidentified in calves less than 4 months of age and include neurologicmanifestations, locomotor disturbances and ocular and cerebralanomalies (De Meerschman et al., 2005).Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian protozoan parasite thathas been attributed to numerous outbreaks of neonatal calfdiarrhea in different regions of the world (Xiao, 2010). It hasdiverse characteristics, such as food and water borne-transmission(Ramirez et al., 2004), zoonotic implications (Chalmers and Davies,2010), economical hazards, chemotherapy and vaccine resistance(Mead, 2002), which render it a…
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