Australia was first claimed by Captain Cook in early 1770, but it wasn’t settled until 1788 when the first fleet of 11 ships arrived at Botany Bay, carrying 1,530 passengers - mostly convicts, as well as some marines and officers. They moved to Port Jackson to begin establishing a settlement. Specific prisoners were chosen for the trip, the ones with skills in building, farming and other things that would have been useful to create a “liveable” environment for the new inhabitants. The first “free” settlers only arrived in 1793, thus beginning the colonisation of New South Wales.
During World War I, the Australian home front was impacted by a long and varying list of occurrences during the period of time between the years of 1914 to 1918. The home front was influenced politically through the arguments over the conscription vote and as Australia became divided between the different war beliefs. It was also influenced by social change, as the use of censorship drastically altered the Australians’ views of war and women began to pick up odd jobs in order to assist the soldiers as very few of them were allowed to directly help as nurses in Gallipoli. There were also extreme economic alterations as the wages in Australia were pushed down and prices were pushed up, and the country discarded major trade partners who had become their enemy.
The convicts did not follow this conduct and most believed that the Australian natives were ‘barely human’ (MacDougall .A.K 2004). The population ratio of British settlers in Australia to the natives, drastically altered over the century in the result of rapid colonisation and the conflicts which the Commonwealth of Australia Official Year Books explicitly depicts. The British settlers came in masses bringing a new society and culture to the land. The indigenous people were not familiar with an individual possession society and believed that the stock on the land was to be hunted and used as a food source. This is epitomised in a letter sent to the editor of The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser by Daniel Eaton in 1838, stating that ‘five horses [were] killed, and four others were wounded… a hundred head of cattle killed and the flocks and herds were driven away in all directions by the blacks’ (Convict Creations, 2013). Newspapers from the time showed that the British reacted to the natives by killing them off the land and believed that the ‘Natives should be slaughtered…[because] they are baboons, blood thirsty dogs and black animals’ (Stewart D,1986). The British were not interested in negotiating with the natives of the land and believed their culture was inhuman wasting the land. Governor Gawler stated in a newspaper article, ‘Black men- we wish to make you happy, but you cannot be
On the 26th of January 1788, Australia was settled by the British who came in the First Fleet. The First Fleet was made up of 11 ships, holding 1,350 convicts, soldiers and settlers. Australia became the new penal colony as prisons were overflowing in Britain due to America’s Independence and refusal to take more convicts. Recently, there has been much debate over whether this colonisation of Australia was an invasion or settlement. An invasion is an unwelcome intrusion into another’s domain. Whereas a settlement is the process of establishing a settlement or settlements. Clearly, when considering these definitions, it can be seen that the colonisation of Australia was intended to be a peaceful settlement, but soon turned
Although both the World Wars had significant impacts on Australians, the statement that wartime controls in World War One had a greater impact on Australians than they did in World War Two is fairly inaccurate. There are a number of reasons as to why this was the case, as demonstrated through the government 's wartime controls. One of the wartime controls that was utilised by the government in both World Wars but had greater impact on Australians in World War Two was conscription. Another wartime control that had a higher degree of impact on Australians in World War Two than in World War One was the detainment and isolation of ‘enemy aliens’ when the government again took steps to protect their national security. With such a large number of servicemen deployed overseas, the role of women in Australia also changed drastically to meet the needs of the armed forces, the government and the economy and this influenced Australian life more in World War Two. Therefore, although both wars affected the lives of many Australians in mental, physical, social and economic aspects, the wartime controls of World War Two had a much greater impact on Australians than in World War One.
The reason why Australia joined the Vietnam War was to support South Korea in stopping communism from spreading to Europe and Asia. The French defeat at the Dien Bien Phu was followed by a peace conference in Geneva. As a result of the conference, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam received their independence, and Vietnam was temporarily divided between an anti-Communist South and a Communist North. Koreas national conflict had rapidly become one of the global significance the us president called to stop North Korea from invading South Korea and spreading communism. North Korea refused which led to the USA to start a military intervention to stop communism spreading to South Korea. From the 29th of June to the 27th 1953 1700 Australian sailors, soldiers and airmen served in the Korean War.
The European invasion of Australia in 1780 impacted upon the lives of all the Aboriginal people that lived in and around the invaded areas. When Captain Cook landed in Australia, he declared it as Terra Nullius, and this alone gives a significant insight as to the mentality of the British and their willingness to acknowledge the Aboriginal people and the importance that the land played in their daily lives. As the invaders brought with them their laws, ideals, diseases, livestock and people, the need for land increased and settlers began to venture outwards from the main settlements, the frontier broadened and the Aboriginal population began to shrink. The encroachment upon the land meant that many Aboriginal people were now being forced
Before the First Fleet, consisting of eleven ships, arrived in Botany Bay on the 26th of January 1788, it is known that there were approximately 750 000 Aboriginals living in Australia. Today there are only about 250 000 (Harding, 2001). They all made many, both positive and negative impacts on the Aboriginals. Whilst they brought several diseases which wiped out much of the population and kidnapped many Aboriginal people, the British also showed many technologies to the Native people and introduced them to the modern world.
After World War II in the 20th century, the United States and the Soviet Union were the new “Superpowers”. These two major nations had two conflicting political ideologies which were stated as Capitalism and Communism, and this had Australia right in the middle of the story. Since Australia has very strong ties with the US, making it even stronger after involving in the Vietnam War and also grew strong with the ‘SEATO’ and ‘ANZUS’ with the fear of the so called ‘domino theory’ and the foreign policies which including the Forward Defence Policy. This, however, allowed Australia to gain a closer chance to go to war in Vietnam.
From the 1850’s to the 1880’s bushranging was at its height in Australia akin to America’s wild-west. Easy money was the go on the end of a gun. Desperadoes such as the likes of Jesse James, Butch Cassidy, Billy the Kid etc. unknowingly followed in the footsteps of Australia’s Ben Hall, Frank Gardiner, Johnny Gilbert, John O'Meally, Daniel Morgan, Captain Thunderbolt etc. and later Jesse James contemporary, Ned Kelly. Ben Hall had his own Robert (Bob) Ford - betrayed for blood money by Mick Coneley.
The first type of bushranger was convicts from the first fleet who fled the colony for freedom. The second types of bushranger were those who chose to become an outlaw. Within this essay I will highlight the reasons why a bushranger became an outlaw by explaining the lifestyle of the early Australian settlement and how they shaped Australian’s Colonial Identity and became an important part of Australian history.
The Black war was set in the mid-1820s to 1832, in Australia,Tasmania it was the period of conflict between the British and the Aboriginals. For the first 10 years or more after Britain settled in Tasmania in 1803. It’s small outposts on the Derwent and Tamar rivers never made up of more than a couple thousand poorly equipped colonists. Most majority of the island remained under Aboriginal control and conflict was rare.
Australia was colonised by Britain in 1778, and this triggered immigration from Europe and the United Kingdom. Since then, Australia has seen patterns of people from all over the world coming in waves to start a life here, for reasons such as wanting to improve their quality
also the crime rate in Britain had raised dramatically and all prisons were full to the max, they even started to use some of the old ships to store the prisoners because all of the jails were full. The reasoning behind all of this crime is because of the industrial revolution not long before and the machines were taking over people’s jobs and all the unemployed needed to get money somehow so they resorted in stealing which ultimately made all the prisons full. The Britain originally sent convicts to the US but later decided just to send them to Australia. The first fleet set off in 1787 and arrived in 1788 in Botany Bay but soon after landing they thought that the surfaces were to soft and decided to move camp, and they ended up of what is now called Sydney. Around 40 years after the first fleet arrived, the Europeans wanted to expand from Sydney so in 1825 they arrived in Van Diemen’s land now known as Tasmania. Soon after convicts were sent all round
Australia’s colonial beginnings can be described as a penal settlement where our population grew due to the result of the punishment of offenders through transportation from England and Ireland. Australia early penal settlements are described as brutal places for most convicts, for many. Transportation was less onerous than the life of a pauper in the British Isles. In the early nineteenth century there was a potential deterrent effect of an uncertain voyage and an indeterminate fate that had been tempered by the system of assignment, tickets of leave and emancipation. However the authorities in England believed this system gave to much liberty