Depression is a common disorder throughout the world that affects all age groups. Although rare in young children, depression disrupts the lives of many teenagers. In the United States, 11.2% of 13 to 18 year olds are affected by depressive disorders annually (National Institute of Mental Health). Depression during youth is particularly destructive since it not only causes a loss of relationships and
al, 2015; Pearl et. al, 2017). Because of this, it is important that future studies are conducted that investigate the prevalence of the mental health stigma in the United States so that nation-wide programs may be directed to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illness. Enumerating on the negative effects of the mental illness stigma is relatively easy given the fact that there is considerable research on the subject. For example, Corrigan (2004) notes that mental health stigma is linked to decreased access to mental health care in those who need it, which in turn exacerbates their situation and further perpetuates the idea that lack of proper mental health care is acceptable. According to Oexle et. al (2015), mental illness stigma is linked to a higher risk for suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness in those with mental health problems, which results in an increased risk of suicide. In addition, the effects of the stigma can be seen throughout the therapeutic process. As Pearl et. al note (2017), increased internalized stigma is associated with worse mental health condition, and decreased stigma results in decreased symptomatic severity in those with mental health issues. This means that if someone feels highly stigmatized throughout the treatment process that they will likely recover more slowly than those who feels less stigmatized. This again proves why it is important to study which populations suffer the most from mental health stigmatization so that it can be properly addresses in hopes of reducing the countless negative effects associated with
People suffering from mental illness and other problems are often the most discriminated, socially excluded, stigmatized, and vulnerable members of the society. They have to constantly struggle and face a double problem. Firstly, they have to struggle with the symptoms of the mental illness itself. They may face with problems such as illusions, delusions, hallucinations and other symptoms, which depend on a particular mental disorder. These symptoms do not allow the person to live a satisfactory life. They do not allow the person to work and independently achieve something in their life. And secondly, they are challenged by several stereotypes and prejudices, which gradually result in many misconceptions about mental illness known as “stigma”. Therefore, mental illness results not only in the difficulties arising from the symptoms of the disorder but also in the negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates the people to fear, reject, avoid and exclusion of people with mental illness. Some people with mental illness could lose self confidence, accept the prejudices and may also turn them against themselves. This is referred to as ‘self-stigma’, loosening the confidence of the person suffering with mental illness.
Evidences of current element of mental health stigmatization can be seen in many area within the society. First of all, people with mental disorder claimed “employment discrimination as one of their most frequent stigma experience”(5). Stigmatizing views held by employers limited the employment opportunity for the affected individuals. A survey of US employer show that 50% of them reluctant to hire someone with past psychiatric history or currently undergoing treatment for depression. Moreover, “approximately 70% are reluctant to hire someone currently taking antipsychotic medication” (5). Yet, “one in three mental health consumers in the United States report being turned down for a job once their psychiatric status [uncovers]” (5).
Nearly 9 out of 10 people with mental health problems expressed that stigma and discrimination has had a negative impact on their lives. Stigma is a mark of shame that separates a person from others, when someone is characterized by their mental illness, they are viewed as part of an often negatively stereotyped group. For those who suffer from mental illness life is already challenging, so having to cope with prejudice and stigma from those around them only worsens their condition and their day to day life harder. Stigmatisation of mental illness is caused by false stereotypes and creates many problems such as self stigmatisation, employability issues, misrepresentation in the media and a
Individuals with a mental health diagnosis are often subjected to the stigmatization that society places on them. This generalized idea is an example of how society looks at mental illness and portrays it as a personal trouble. Individuals who are diagnosed with a mental illness are often looked at as dangerous, it is assumed that the mental illness they have is self-inflicted, or that individuals with mental illness are irresponsible. The stigmatization that individuals with mental illness are exposed to, can make it difficult for them to seek help or services. This stigma may also limit the employment opportunities the individual gets, they may have trouble finding housing, as well as trouble being able to be a part of social activities therefor further marginalizing these individuals in our society.
How does stigma affect personal life goals? Stigma is found in two different forms, public and self-stigma. Public stigma can be described as stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination. Common stereotypes about mental illness include blame, dangerousness and incompetence (Corrigan, Larosn, & Ruesch, 2009). The forms of public stigma cause a chain reaction leading to a loss of opportunities, coercion and segregation for people with mental illness. Self-stigma is defined as a devaluation of the self by internalizing negative stereotypes they attribute to themselves and attributed to them from external sources (Shrivastava, Johnston & Bureau, 2012). Self-stigma is a huge contribution to adherence to treatment for mental health patients and negatively impacts the ability to fully achieve goals. Patients that internalize negative stereotypes, self-stigma, have the attitude of “why try.”
In 2014, there were an estimated 9.8 million adults, about 4.2% of the population, in the United States with one or more severe mental illness. (Center, 2015). Of these adults with severe mental illnesses, 41.7% of them report having been affected by self-stigma (Gerlinger et al., 2013). Self-stigma, or internalized stigma, is the process of picking up on the negative stereotypes of people with severe mental illness in the everyday world and applying it to themselves (Ritsher et al., 2003, Livingston and Boyd, 2010 and Bos et al., 2013)., Self-stigma often results in psychological distress, social withdrawal, unwillingness to disclose diagnoses, and reduction in sense of self-worth (Ritsher et al., 2003, Livingston and Boyd, 2010 and Bos et
Stigma has been said to be “a feeling of being negatively differentiated owing to a particular condition, group membership or state in life”(Arboleda-Florez & Stuart, 2012, p. 458). There are typically two types of mental illness stigma that are discussed. Public stigma, also known as societal stigma, is the stigma associated with the prejudicial attitudes the public holds towards those people who suffer from mental illness (Arboleda-Florez & Stuart, 2012; Corrigan, Markowitz, Watson, Rowan & Kubiak, 2003). Self-stigma, also known as internalized stigma, is the loss of self-esteem, withdrawal, and personal shame that some with mental illness will experience. Self-stigma is usually developed when those who suffer from mental illness associate the negative stereotypes the public holds with themselves (Chronister, Chou, & Lieo, 2013; Corrigan et al., 2003).
In addition, students tend self-stigmatize which can prove problematic when they should be looking for help. This is problematic because as stated by Corrigan and Rao in an article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that examines the effects of self-stigma, it "diminishes feelings of self-worth, such that the hope in achieving goals is undermined" (Corrigan and Rao 465). If a student has low self-worth, they can end up in a spiral of stagnation, or they end up the victims of the “Why Try” effect. This is when “Diminished self-esteem leads to a sense of being less worthy of opportunities, which undermines efforts at independence, such as obtaining a competitive job… (or) achieving a life goal" (Corrigan and Rao 465). This effect is when a person suffering from mental illness – usually depression – believes they are not worth the attempts to fix, or to better themselves. The “why try” effect also explains why mental illnesses are underreported. People suffering from mental illnesses may have the goal of helping themselves, but they can often believe they are not worth the time or believe someone else needs the time more than
The way a person views themselves can be another reason why so many of those diagnosed with mental illnesses avoid or quit helping treatments. Research shows that people with mental illness often internalize stigmatizing ideas that are widely endorsed within society. This brings about a belief that they are less valued because of their psychiatric disorder. The inability to obtain jobs or achieve life goals greatly affects a person’s self-esteem and self-efficacy. If people deny that they have a mental disorder then there would be no need to be judged by others, thus keeping their self-esteem somewhat positive.
There are many types of discrimination and stigma around mental health. So damaging, it impacts 63% of individuals living with mental illness alone. Social stigma holds people for believing they can live a fulfilled existence in spite of diagnosis and symptoms of mental illness. The number of studies showing what it’s called “diagnostic overshadowing” that is, over attributing a patient’s symptoms of a particular condition, in many cases, it means the medical morbidity of being undiagnosed and untreated is rising. This trend presents alarming numbers, making us, the sufferers, sicker and self-conscious of our own efforts to live a “normal life”. I have experienced stigma in its many forms: social, perceived, and self-stigma. But I was
Depression, generalized anxiety disorder, eating disorders, etc are more common than one might realize, but they often go unnoticed because of these stigmas. First, I will define mental illness and give you some statistics about mental illness. Second, I will define stigma and tell you about the ways mentally ill people have been stigmatized both in the past and today and why. Finally, I will tell you about some laws that attempt to decrease stigma in the work place and offer suggestions as to how to further decrease stigma.
Bill Clinton once stated, “Mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of, but stigma and bias shame us all.” Mental illness comes with multiple influences towards the daily life of an individual. On one hand, these individuals must try to manage the symptoms that arise with their disease. Mental health disorders can affect the way individuals perform at their jobs, their social life, and even being able to live alone (Corrigan & Penn, 1997). On the other hand, the way society tends to view mental illnesses leads to stigma and discrimination, unreasonably causing the same individuals to end up without a chance at work, denied by society, and deprived of independent living.
Individuals with serious mental illness are doubly affected by their disease; not only do they experience the often debilitating symptoms of their condition, but they must also endure mundane mental health stigmas and prejudices. Stigmatized attitudes are perceived to be one of the greatest impediments to living a complete and fulfilling life. Stigma has been defined as a combination of three related problems: ignorance, prejudice and discrimination (Rose, Thornicroft, Pinfold, & Kassam, 2007). Ignorance implies a lack of knowledge, prejudice entails negative attitudes, and discrimination involves exclusionary actions against people deemed to be different. Two forms of stigma are commonly distinguished in literature. Public stigma describes the attitudes of society towards people with mental illness, while self-stigma results from the internalization of prejudice by people who suffer from mental health conditions (Corrigan, Powell, & Rüsch, 2012). The World Health Organization announced that stigma was the most crucial obstacle to overcome for a community to functioning effectively and efficiently (Ontario Hospital Association, 2013).