Causes Of Strongyloidiasis

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Strongyloidiasis is a human disease caused by a parasite belonging to a group of soil transmitted helminth. The causative organ for this intestinal infection is Strongyloides stercoralis and S. fuelleborni being the only other species of Strongyloides that infects humans. This species that commonly infects non-human primates can also cause infections in humans (Ashford and Barnish, 1989; Ashford et al., 1992; Zerpa et al., 2014) is thus zoonotic in nature. Furthermore, strongyloidiasis caused by S. fuelleborni has been shown to be associated with a disease called ‘swollen belly syndrome’ in which neonatal infants acquire overwhelming intestinal infections that can also disseminate and cause (Ashford and Barnish, 1989) fatalities in the absence…show more content…
However it is only present in cases with immunocompromised individuals or individuals who are undergoing corticosteroid treatment and those that are also infected with HTLV-1 (Luis A. Marcos et al., 2008; Alison C. Roxby et al., 2009).The symptoms of the disease may differ in acute or chronic phase. The acute phase generally begins within few minutes after the larva penetrates the host skin and is accompanied by redness and itchiness of the localized area at the point of penetration. Commonly seen symptoms within 24 hours of the larval penetration are edema, urticarial, and petechial at the site of penetration. In some cases, low grade fever, malaise and eosinophilia are also reported. Eosinophilia is usually prominent after one week of infection when the larva from the site of penetration reaches the lungs and the tracheobronchial pathway through portal system and starts irritating the throat which eventually results in severe coughing (Meyers et al., 2000).Feet is the common site of penetration (Meyers et al., 2000) and severity of the lesions depends on the number of larvae that penetrate the skin as well as the immune status of the infected individual. It takes normally three weeks for the infection to become chronic and larva resides in…show more content…
Three epidemiological categories for this disease namely sporadic where the prevalence of the disease is seen to be less than one percent, endemic with the prevalence between 1-5% and hyper endemic with prevalence of more than 5% (Paula and Costa-Cruz, 2011). Endemic and hyper endemic mainly occurs in subtropical and tropical regions respectively while the sporadic prevalence is seen in temperate regions (Vadlamudi et al., 2006). Endemic areas of the world include Sub-Saharan Africa, West Indies including Island of Caribbean, Latin and South America with main focus on tropical regions of Brazil, South East Asia, Bangladesh, Southern Pakistan and Eastern and Central European Union. Endemic foci are also reported in temperate Mediterranean sectors of South East Spain, Northern Italy and Rural Romania (Igual-Adell and Dominguez-Marquez, 2007).Schar and Wang reported Strongyloides in aboriginal communities in rural and remote Australia as well as Puerto Rica (Wang et al., 2013; Schar et al., 2013).The disease is also known to be found in Pacific islands mainly Fiji islands(Wang et al., 2013).Strongyloides is not currently reported disease in USA although the rural areas of the Southern states and Appalachain regions of USA are found to be endemic(Croker et al., 2010).Due to growing number of immigrants,

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