Time to time there has been development in new drugs for glaucoma. With these new drugs comes new benefits and risks. Glaucoma being the second leading cause of blindness in the world (after cataract) (1) is expected to affect around 11 million people worldwide by 2020 (1). Most of the affected population are greater than 50 years of age, who are also expected to have other health issues. For a clinician, it becomes extremely important to understand the potential side effects of the medications before prescribing it to the patients. These adverse drug reactions can occur from the drug itself, the preservatives or the vehicle of the drug, and can be ocular or systemic. Unabsorbed topical ocular medication for glaucoma may drain out of the eye through naso-lacrimal duct and can be absorbed by conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, oropharynx, and GI mucosa (occasionally) to rise to sufficient levels in the blood to cause systemic side effect or interact with other drugs. It has been estimated that roughly 80% of an eye drop can pass through the nasal nasolacrimal duct and get absorbed into the nasal mucosa and its microvasculature. Considering that these eye drops are often used in either eyes twice or thrice a day, the systemic implications can be extremely dangerous. (8)(14)
After successful osseointegrated implant therapy, one of the most common complications has been the screw loosening. The importance of abutment screw tightening with proper preload continues to be emphasized. Not only is a minimum torque critical, but excessive torque may exceed the yield strength of the screw, resulting in permanent deformation, loss of mechanical, and screw fracture. Problems associated with abutment screw loosening and fracture may be due to inaccurate fit and improper tightening.
These include large skin incisions, more extensive soft tissue dissection, a higher requirement for blood transfusions, and a prolonged stay in hospital (Schwartsmann et al., 2014). In a research study done by Garg, Marimuthu, Kumar, Malhotra & Kotwal, 2011 they reported that post-operative mobilisation was related to bone quality and fracture reduction, and the position of the implant within the femoral head. Garg et al., 2011 emphasizes on the fact that patients who have had proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) had relatively earlier mobilisation than those who underwent
The most common cause of visual impairment is due to uncorrected refractive error. 2 Studies by researchers by the Brien Holden Vision Institute approximates the cost to correct refractive errors to be US$20 045 million.2 The correction of refractive errors make a worthwhile investment as uncorrected refractive errors cause an estimated US$91,300 million - US$327,000 million loss in productivity. 2 In order to minimise this loss of productivity, it is imperative for the government to support visual health sectors. Therefore, due to the high economic costs of refractive error, family, communities and the government must implement preventative or corrective measures.
The formal outcome of treatment is unavailable to present due to the fact that the client decided to discontinue treatment at week five leaving the final BAI uncompleted. Attempts to reach the client directly were inconclusive, although I was able to speak to her mother who stated that Clara no longer wanted therapy. Clara was making gains in therapy and verbally expressed feeling better even though her anxiety symptoms increased overall during the treatment phase. What is most interesting is that the symptoms changed. Some areas decreased for example the ability to relax, while others increased such as the somatic symptoms of unsteadiness and hot and cold sweats. Utilizing the information provided from the assessment, it appears
Addressing the termination of treatment is an important phase of the therapeutic process. Either the counselor or the client may initiate termination, when it becomes reasonably clear that the client has attained stated goals and objectives, is not likely to continue services, is not likely to benefit, or is being harmed by continuing the service (CCPA, 2007; CCPA, 2015; Martin, Shepard & Lehr, 2015).
In this article, “Three surgeon-innovators share their LenSx[R] Laser Pearls". Dr. LaBorwit et. al restates "Rudimentary cataract surgery is centuries old, primarily taking the form of couching, then evolving with early attempts with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation starting in the mid-1700s"(pS1). It discusses how the technical advances of the last few years have propelled surgical procedures into a bright new era. It provides practices that have embraced this new approach to cataract surgery and the errors how best to incorporate it by laser technology into their patient flows. This source is a benefit for my source because it contains how laser eyes optimized both their technique and the reproduction of their outcomes. It gives agreeable
Cataracts are the most common cause of vision loss in people over 40 years and is the leading cause of blindness in the world. In fact, there are more cases of cataracts worldwide than glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy combined. Currently, cataracts affect more than 22 million Americans form 40 years of age or older. In addition, as the population of the United States ages, more than 30 million cataract cases are expected
Visual acuity does seem to be reasonably intact with patient wearing corrective lenses. Fundi showed diabetic changes but otherwise unremarkable.
Fugazzotto conducted the only study comparing implants immediately placed into sites with periapical pathology with those immediately placed into sites without periapical pathology in the same patient, it was observed that both treatments yielded comparable results with no statistically significant difference in survival rates.(165)
Although the procedure is an efficient method to correct eyesight, there are many controversial topics surrounding the conduction of the surgery and debates on whether the procedure would need to be limited in clinics and hospitals due to the health risks. After the surgery there is around 5% chance of experiencing long term and permanent side effects and 0.37% of blindness (Wachler, 2016). In Britain, an estimate of 15,000 people undergo LASIK each year (Wachler, 2016), meaning that around 750 people each year in Britain will experience the long term issues of LASIK and 55 will be blinded or severely injured. While several clinics offer the opportunity to provide LASIK surgery, the consultation processes often omit the risks and side effects in detail which can encourage the desire to undergo surgery (Squire, 2010). The main causes of the issue occur due to poor judgement of the surgeon during the consultation process when diagnosing for suitability for the surgery. The process for diagnosing the suitability for patients to undergo LASIK surgery include many factors and requirements which will be identified by the surgeon during the consultation process. The thickness of the cornea, diameter of pupils, refractive error, and health can all effect the likelihood of risk during the process when the ultraviolet laser will instead cause defects and degeneration. Therefore, because of the information gathered, laser eye surgery should be considered to enforce a harsher guideline to the qualifications and requirements to undergo the procedure to reduce the risk of side effects and permanent
In our study it has been shown that 1 mm medial rectus recession result in 2.8 prism diopter change in the angle of deviation while, Luisa M. And her colleagues found that medial rectus recession dose response rate was 3.0 prism diopter per 1 mm but, that was on sensory esotropia. (11)
Cataract is the most common cause of curable blind¬ness in the world. It remains the leading cause of blindness in India (62.60%) (Vijaya L et al 2005 ). High quality, high volume cataract surgery is needed in community eye care centres to effectively manage the large back-log of cataract blindness (Natchiar G et al 1994 ). The number of cataract extraction procedures performed all over the world is predicted to increase under the auspices of Vision 2020 Global Initiative about 35 millions by 2020 (Taylor, 1999 ). Couching is the first surgical procedure known to treat cataract surgically and is only of historic interest. Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) is now obsolete. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation is widely
As discussed before, vitreous humor (VH) is a transparent gel (Chirila and Hong, 1998) , rich in hyaluronic acid and unbranched collagen Type II fibrils (Scott, 2003) which fills the posterior cavity of the eye. The hyaluronan content in the vitreous humour is higher than the protein content and plays an integral role in maintaining the internal tension (Kummer et al., 2007) of VH by a process called Donnan swelling (Kleinberg et al., 2011). Several materials have been tested as substitutes for VH, each of them serving either of the main purposes as described. The implants may either be used to replace a dysfunctional VH when opacification or physical collapse of the original structure has occurred or they may have a temporary or permanent