According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), “health equity is achieved when every person has the opportunity to attain his or her full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). Satcher (2010) reports that health inequities are “systematic, avoidable, and unjust” disparities (p. 6). He also states that the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that social conditions are the most important determinant of a person’s health. Social conditions “determine access to health services and influence lifestyle choices” (Satcher, 2010, p. 6). These determinants must be addressed in order to reduce health inequity. Inequity can be
Healthy People 2020 discusses a number of special population’s that have barriers to care including; race, age sex, sexual identity, age, disability, socioeconomic, and location; this post will discuss race (ethnic) group. There are a number of races mentioned in healthy people 2020, such as, Asian, American Indian, Alaskan, Latino and African American (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). Access to health care in an ethnic group is multifaceted from the lack of trust, lack of health care education, discrimination and cost of care including health insurance. According to Howard, Peace, & Howard (2014), African Americans have a greater risk of three preventable diseases, hypertension, renal failure and bacterial infections stating; “no other disease
In today’s society, there are many different factors that can contribute to one’s overall health and well-being. Since there are so many different factors that can affect one’s health, there are inequalities that exist among people and this is knows as health disparity. "Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups in the United States” (Nhlbi.nih.gov, 2015). Health disparities can be associated with factors such as: socioeconomic status, education, gender, race, ethnicity, age, mental health, and religion. There are certain health problems that can affect different groups more than others, such as diabetes, obesity, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS (Surgeongeneral.gov, 2015). One example of a specific population in the United States that is affected by health disparities is the African American Population. While African Americans are affected by various health disparities, one that affects this population more prominently is heart disease.
The purpose of this research is to identify and measure the most common health disparities that cause African-Americans poor health outcomes, assesses the solutions, and provides alternative suggestions in order to reduce or eliminate the main health disparities.
Socioeconomic status is a health disparity in the United States. In 2012, McHenry concluded that there are approximately 84,000 preventable deaths that occur each year. Although the ACA has provided accessible health care to many people that would otherwise not be able to afford health insurance there still is a large population uninsured (Brown & Divenere, 2017). African Americans have a high prevalence of
The health of a nation plays an integral part in the overall success and economic well being of a particular country. The United Stated, while pouring more money into the healthcare system than any other country, still stands as a broken system with inadequate care for many citizens. One of the most marginalized groups of people, African American women, continually score alarmingly low on basic measures of overall health. The healthcare discrepancies between white and black women in the United States are alarming, and they reveal flaws in the American health care system as a whole.
The United States is a melting pot of cultural diversity. For a country that was founded by individuals fleeing persecution, it has taken us many years to grant African-Americans equal rights, and even longer for those rights to be recognized. Despite all the effort to eliminate inequality in this country, health disparity among this minority group remains a significant issue. Research in this area has pointed to several key reasons for this gap that center on differences in culture, socioeconomics, and lack of health literacy.
Although the United States is a leader in healthcare innovation and spends more money on health care than any other industrialized nation, not all people in the United State benefit equally from this progress as a health care disparity exists between racial and ethnic minorities and white Americans. Health care disparity is defined as “a particular type of health difference that is closely linked with social or economic disadvantage…adversely affecting groups of people who have systematically experienced greater social and/or economic obstacles to health and/or clean environment based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory or physical disability; sexual orientation or gender identity; geographic location; or other characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion” (National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities [NPAEHD], 2011, p. 3). Overwhelming evidence shows that racial and ethnic minorities receive inferior quality health care compared to white Americans, and multiple factors contribute to these disparities, including geography, lack of access to adequate health coverage, communication difficulties between patients and providers, cultural barriers, and lack of access to providers (American College of Physicians,
Among minorities such as Asians, Hispanics, Indians, Native Americans, and Middle Easterners, the African American race has been affected tremendously by the health disparities in the United States. Currently, African Americans have significantly higher mortality rates from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, HIV, unintentional injuries, pregnancy, sudden infant death syndrome, and homicide than do whites Americans (Fiscella & Williams, 2004). While African Americans may lead in these categories, other minorities are not far behind in experiencing health disparities.
Health disparities among African-Americans is a continuing problem that has been seen over many years. African-Americans have higher poverty rates, have lower rates of insurance coverage, and are more likely to be covered by Medicaid, than the White population (Copeland, 2005). This lack of insurance has led many of these individuals, to not seek treatment for illness, due to problem accessing health care (Kennedy, 2013). This leaves African-Americans with little to no treatment, which causes an increase of medical care that will be needed further on in their life or a sooner than expected death, caused by illness (Copeland, 2005).
healthcare system (Elchoufani, 2018). Attaining a good health is the ultimate goal for all people and the overall population, so it is important that people study the interactions between race, gender, and socioeconomic status in this matter (ASPPH, n.d.). People in communities with lower socioeconomic status typically encounter fewer options for healthy food and a lack of health education as well as health care. All in all, studying minority health allows us to find methods in making health care more accessible for under-resourced populations, along with determining methods out services and resources can be dispersed to the populations which are more prone to certain illnesses (ASPPH, n.d.). The studying which results in better methods all benefit towards guiding the U.S. population to overall health
There are many factors that contribute to the current health status of Black Americans, but “Poverty may be the most profound and pervasive determinant of health status” (Edelman & Mandle, 2010, p. 39). Health care is expensive and can only be purchased by those who can afford to pay, so those below the poverty level are those who lack insurance. Without insurance their access to healthcare is limited, especially preventative care. No preventative care means more expensive care that comes with illness.
Through REACH, CDC supports awardee partners that will establish community-based programs and culturally-tailored interventions serving African Americans, American Indians, Hispanics/Latinos, Asian Americans, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders. Interventions focus on proper nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use and exposure, and chronic disease prevention, risk reduction and management opportunities. Additionally, awardees will address health disparities in heart disease, diabetes, and infant health. The intent of REACH is to build an evidence base that supports community-centered approaches to reducing or eliminating health disparities. (REACH 2014 Awardees, para.
According to the 2010 U.S. Census, approximately 36 percent of the population belongs to a racial or ethnic minority group. They suffer higher rates of chronic illness
Butler brings to attention that even states within the United States that have a bigger ratio of “social services” spending to health care have seen better health outcomes, such as lower rates of heart disease and obesity (2). In addition, one must also consider the diverse population of the U.S. when it comes to certain preventative measures. Lesley Russell lists out some critical factors of the different races and their likeness to certain illnesses in the “Center for American Progress”. For instance, African Americans had the highest rate of adult obesity as compared to the white population (3). Some races may be more susceptible to certain illnesses and those statistics are important factors to consider when focusing preventative health care on certain population. If certain races of the population are more susceptible to obesity, for example, then we would need to inform physicians to advise those patients and perhaps offer some programs to help prevent further health risks. Although, focusing on preventative medicine rather than “reacting” health care might seem risky, there is enough evidence to see the benefits of implementing stronger preventative health care. Better to stop an illness from happening in the first place rather than when it is too late or risking falling into