In Pennsylvania, a plaintiff claiming negligent infliction of emotional distress must establish one of these four situations: “1) that the defendant had a contractual or fiduciary duty; 2) plaintiff suffered a physical impact; 3) plaintiff was in a “zone of danger” and at risk of an immediate physical injury; or 4) plaintiff had a contemporaneous perception of tortious injury to a close relative.” Doe v. Phila. Cmty. Health Alternatives AIDS Task Force, 754 A.2d 25, 27 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2000). The first element does not apply to our client because there was no fiduciary or contractual duty relationship. Secondly, it could be argued that Nordlund suffered a physical impact because after Sumner’s accident, Nordlund could not eat, could not
Many Americans embraced a new conservatism in social, economic and political life during the 1980s, characterized by the policies of President Ronald Reagan who took office in 1981. Often remembered for its materialism and consumerism, the decade also saw the rise of the “yuppie,” an explosion of blockbuster movies and the emergence of cable networks like MTV, which introduced the music video and launched the careers of many iconic artists, this lead to a rise in drug abuse, crime aggravated by illegal drugs while overcrowding America 's prisons and the pandemic of HIV/AIDS bowled its way into the American mainstream. During this time Reagan would also implement policies to reduce the federal government’s reach into the daily lives and pocketbooks of Americans, including tax cuts intended to spur growth (known as Reaganomics). He also advocated for increases in military spending, reductions in certain social programs and measures to deregulate business. There were several controversial federal policies such as the Affirmative Action Policy some called it "reverse discrimination", sought to inject racial and gender equality into many aspects of American life, especially college enrollment and workplace hiring practices.
I worked directly with the HIV/AIDS population as well as individuals whose behaviors place them at high risk for becoming infected. I am currently the Supervisor for the AIDS Institute Linkage and Navigation Program where I am responsible for overseeing the delivery of services. These services encompass but are not limited to entitlements, referral to agencies that assist with identifying appropriate housing, referral to medical, mental health and substance use services. I also, oversee treatment adherence services which support clients in their readiness to begin (ARV) antiretroviral therapy and maintain adherence to their prescribed medication for treatment for HIV/AIDS.
The Chicago Department of Public Health exemplifies a public health department that is extremely proactive and supportive of initiatives to eradicate or significantly decrease the incidence of HIV in the City of Chicago. To this end, the Chicago Department of Health monitors the incidences of new cases in the city, while constantly monitoring the progression or regression of the conditions of patients already affected by the HIV virus. Statistical data is collected through the avenue set up for health care providers to report all pertinent information about newly diagnosed HIV or an unusual turn of events with old HIV cases. furthermore, the Chicago Department of Public health ( CDPH) through its monitoring programs is able to identify threats, determine which health care services are need in a community and the target population. For example, in the month of November, their target segments were gays and bisexual African American men because both groups were disproportionately impacted by the HIV outbreak during the previous summer. Impressively, the CDPH has links to addresses where HIV testing is done free of charge and reports are confidential. Most importantly, the result is shared with the department to help the department further enhance the efficiency of the HIV task force of the CDPH. Furthermore, the CDPH is very efficient in the dissemination of information either through links on their website, advertisement, or pamphlets to name a few. Moreover,
HIV is highly prevalent among the United States population, primarily affecting African Americans of all economic levels and age groups. HIV is transmissible through sexual contact and damages the immune system as it interferes with the individual’s capability to fight off any infections or illnesses. Health inequalities that greatly affect the high rates of HIV include but are not limited to: higher rates of poverty, lack of awareness, intercourse within the same sex, having anxiety towards getting tested for STD’s or HIV, as well as being fearful of “coming out”. Local, state, and nationwide organizations are designed to inform and provide assistance to those who have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. S.A.A.F. (Southern Arizona AIDS Foundation)
According to the CDC (2015), more than one million people are living with HIV in the United States, and more than 50,000 become newly infected each year. Unfortunately, one in five Americans living with HIV are unaware of their infection. I believe using the strategy which stresses the use of the 10 essential services of public health will help reduce the incidence of HIV in our
The first cases of AIDS that were reported in the United States began in the early 1980s. Today, more than 1.1 million people are living with HIV. In response to this HIV epidemic, at least 35 states have implemented HIV-specific criminal laws that penalize HIV-positive people for exposing others to the virus. These laws impose criminal penalties to HIV positive people that knowingly and potentially expose others to the virus. The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act, also known as the CARE Act, provides states with funds for AIDS treatment and care. In 1990, the CARE Act required every state to certify that its “criminal laws were adequate to prosecute any HIV-infected individual who knowingly exposed another person to HIV.” Criminal laws regarding potential HIV exposure vary largely from state to state. Some federal legislation addresses the criminal penalties for intentional exposure such as through blood donation. CDC and Department of Justice researches found that, “ by 2011, a total of 67 laws explicitly focused on persons living with HIV had been enacted in 33 states… In 24 states, laws require persons who are aware that they have HIV disclose their status to sexual partners and 14 states require disclosure to needle-sharing partners.” The criminal laws vary as to what behaviors are criminalized or result in additional penalties. The criminal statutes regarding intentional exposure to AIDS for Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Alabama ,Georgia, and
About the national response to the HIV epidemic in Detroit, the National HIV/AIDS strategy details the principles and priorities to guide the collective national work to address HIV in the U.S. by the year 2020 (Opalewski, 2016). The United States government leads
One of the growing public health problems in the United States today is the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, among the American population. Beginning in the 1980s, the U.S. public health system has been working vigorously to come up with effective methods for preventing the spread of this debilitating virus. HIV has persistently stayed within the human population due to the continual transmission of the disease. Before widespread transmission of HIV, the two most transmissible way of contracting the disease was either using unsterile needles for drug use or by unprotected sex with partners who were infected – most of the infected individuals in the 1980s were those who were or had been in homosexual relationships.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the majority of people in the world living with HIV/AIDS reside in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since there is currently no vaccine to prevent the spread of the infection, there have been countless attempts in the past to control the spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. There are multiple ways of infection spread in Sub-Saharan Africa. People are contracting the disease through, drug use, sexual relations, giving birth, and blood-to-blood contact. With so many ways to contract the infection it makes the prevention of spreading the infection so difficult, especially in such a low-income country. These challenges have not stopped many scientists, educators, and health-care professionals create interventions to try and stop the wildfire, that is the spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub- Saharan Africa. Most interventions have failed and some have helped. There are a huge amount of factors that need to be carefully thought about when creating an intervention. What looks good on paper may not work for the culture of a country. Making all people in sub- Saharan Africa listen, understand and act on a plan is nearly impossible.
Just as clearly, experience shows that the right approaches, applied quickly enough with courage and resolve, can and do result in lower HIV infection rates and less suffering for those affected by the epidemic. An ever-growing AIDS epidemic is not inevitable; yet, unless action against the epidemic is scaled up drastically, the damage already done will seem minor compared with what lies ahead. This may sound dramatic, but it is hard to play down the effects of a disease that stands to kill more than half of the young adults in the countries where it has its firmest hold—most of them before they finish the work of caring for their children or providing for their elderly parents. Already, 18.8 million people around the world have died of AIDS, 3.8 million of them children. Nearly twice that many—34.3 million—are now living with HIV, the virus .
“Let’s create an AIDS/HIV-free generation”, which is not only a slogan that was proposed by President Obama but also a goal that I would like to achieve on my future career path. My practicum project at the Department of Health and Human Services was to generate dataset of new AIDS/HIV cases in Houston/Harris area required by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and then to use ArcGIS software to make a map describing the new diagnosed in Houston area. The final products can be spatially lined to other sources to enhance understanding of social determinants of health affecting populations impacted by HIV. This practicum experience let me realize that AIDS spreads so quickly is because most people have insufficient knowledge or misconception about the disease and prevention. Becoming a pharmacist to provide prevention service and educate people to improve their health and wellbeing is how I want to reach the goal of creating an AIDS/HIV-free generation.
There are several ways you can protect yourself and your partner(s) from HIV. Using a condom the correct way and every time you engage in sex, but not everybody uses the methods. If your partner is HIV positive, but you’re negative, then talk to your doctor about taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). It’s a medication you take daily to prevent HIV infection. This drug is not for people who have a partner who is infected, it’s also recommended for people who engage in sex with a partner who do not know their status or been diagnosed with an STD in the last 6 months, and about couple who have sex and do not use a condom regularly.
Today many people around the world are infected with a serious disease called AIDS. Unfortunately, the disease has led to many deaths worldwide and yet it still remains untreatable. Many Public Health Departments are now taking the lead in publicizing education about AIDS. Public awareness and prevention programs are possible solutions to the spread of AIDS. The issue of this paper is on AIDS Prevention Programs that target women. One outlook is that prevention programs that target women will reduce the number of infections around the world. People opposed to this believe that prevention programs should aim more towards males. The disease is obviously an important social issue which impacts people worldwide.
Forging of safer sexual behaviors through communications strategies on the general population using numerous channels, eg) Counseling, books and media.