Cell Cells And Its Effects On The Behavior And Adaptive Immune System

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CD1 molecules are a family of highly conserved antigen presenting proteins that presents lipid antigens to T cells. The CD1 family comprises five members (CD1a-e) in humans (Hong et al. 1999; Luoma et al. 2014). Of these molecules, CD1d has been the subject of much interest following the finding that the molecule is the only member conserved between mice and humans, though murine has two CD1d molecules, CD1d1 and CD1d2. CD1d molecule could be expressed by most hematopoietic cells, including dendritic cells, B cells, macrophages, immature and mature T cells and hepatocytes (Hong et al. 1999). Notably, CD1d could bind and present phospholipids and glycolipids to a specialized subset of T cells known as natural killer T cells (NKT) (Adams and…show more content…
The loss of CD1d impairs NKT cell development in the thymus and yields an NKT cell deficient model. As a result, CD1d knockout mice have been extensively used in the NKT cell studies. For example, Kotas et al. reported that CD1d deficiency led to a mild exacerbation of steatosis during high fat or choline-deficient feeding, accompanied by impaired hepatic glucose tolerance (Kotas et al. 2011). Martin-Murphy et al. found that CD1d-deficient mice were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD) feeding (Martin-Murphy et al. 2014). Moreover, CD1d-deficient mice have been reported to be more susceptible to a wide variety of viruses including herpes simplex viruses (Ashkar and Rosenthal 2003; Grubor-Bauk et al. 2003), cytomegalovirus (Broxmeyer et al. 2007), diabetogenic encephalomyocarditis virus (Exley et al. 2001), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (Johnson et al. 2002). All of these evidence suggest that CD1d have important immunological functions. Unfortunately, mouse-based discoveries have been difficult to translate to humans due to considerable differences in NKT cell frequencies, subsets, cytokine secretion profiles and tissue localization patterns between the two species (Bendelac et al. 2007; Van Kaer et al. 2011a). We and others have used a mouse-reactive CD1d tetramer (TT) reagent loaded with the αGC analog PBS57 to identify a population of pig lymphocytes with NKT cell
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