Imagine 55 battles with 3.5 million losses lasting 116 years. This is the story behind the Hundred Years’ War, an extensive struggle between England and France over succession to the French throne between 1337 and 1453. The war commences firstly with a conflict over the status of the duchy of Guyenne which belonged to England yet it was a fief of the French crown. Secondly, the closest relatives of the last direct Capetian King Charles IV had claimed the crown of France which was to be challenged.
Over the period of the late sixteenth century to the late eighteenth century nobility changed its influences on the public and the royal court this led to arguments such as the difference of the sword and robe nobles to the idea of not having nobles at all. This controversy will continue as the struggle for power continues in the higher classes in European governments or when the idea of monarchy ends
They, like a fox, slyly gained political influence over the church by negotiating with the pope. They were given the ability to choose who would be the Church’s clergy and priests. This is extremely important to the throne, for with this capability, the monarch would be able to control the faith of their nation. Not only would they manage the finances and property of the people, but also the hearts. Another “fox-like” quality of the French monarchs is the astute way in which Edward IV and others conducted foreign policy. They focused on diplomacy when dealing with foreign affairs, which helped them to avoid expensive wars. This saved their nation a large amount of money, because instead of constant fighting, there was continual growth. In a similar manner to England, the French monarchy displayed sneaky characteristics by choosing from among smaller landowners and urban lawyers for a government council. By choosing these landowners and lawyers, the monarch received more financial support and power than they would have by choosing nobles and aristocrats. Along with the “fox-like” actions, France also showed “lion-like” characteristics with Edward, Richard III, and Henry VII who attempted to reinstate prominence, suppress the influence of the nobility, and demonstrate law and discipline a local level around France. By lessening the importance of nobles, the rulers gained control and started to rebuild the position of the monarch. They were fierce in their endeavors to gain power and enforce law in their nation. This, along with the newly established influence on the church and careful efforts to avoid expensive and unnecessary wars, showed how France both had “fox-like” and “lion-like”
With a lock of nobles in Europe, Kings take control of more land and make more laws.
The English, with a smaller population, actually had a larger pool of higher quality troops available than the French. England also had a lock on longbowmen (yeomen), who were also excellent infantry and light cavalry. Thus the English had mobility and quality advantages. Meanwhile, the
Wars were also part of the crisis, notably the Hundred Years War between England and France. In 1328 the French Capetian line ended. England’s Edward III (d.1377) claimed the French throne, but a cousin to the Capets, Philip of Valois, became king (d.1350). War soon began. Armored knights on horseback were the backbone of medieval armies, but English peasants using the longbow had begun to change the face of war. When the French king was captured, a treaty was signed in 1360: France agreed to pay ransom, the English received land in France, and Edward renounced his claim to the throne. Using guerilla tactics, the French regained their lands, but in 1415 England’s Henry V (d.1422)
In northern Europe after the Middle Ages, monarchies began to build the foundations of their countries that are still in affect today. During the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries these “New Monarchs” made many relevant changes in their nations. During the middle of the fifteenth century Europe was affected by war and rebellion, which weakened central governments. As the monarchies attempted to develop into centralized governments once again, feudalism’s influence was lessened. This “new” idea of centralization was reflected in the monarch’s actions. Rulers tried to implement peace and restore the idea that the monarchy represented law and order in the nation. These New Monarchs were able to build armies due to taxation, and
The Hundred Years War, a 116 year war struggle from 1337 to 1453 was a war that raged between the most powerful European empires of their time, France and England. The rulers of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of France got in a war over the secession to the French throne. The French king did not leave a son to rule, so the English king declared he should be king of both lands because women were not fit to rule. The war was fought mostly in French land and played an immense role on shaping both kingdoms and the world in multiple ways. The Hundred Year’s Was significant because it developed national pride, revolutionized warfare, and destroyed the French and British economy.
For example, it featured rapid military innovation. Over the course of the war, weapons, the structure of an army, military tactics, and the very meaning of a war all changed (Curry). In addition, the war left both England and France with a changed meaning of their setting. France, after being divided for years, was finally once again united and shared nationalistic sentiment that had been lacking prior to and during the course of the war (Curry). Meanwhile, the English found themselves losing almost all of their land outside of their island territory. Thus, this awakened their need to develop a navy, which would be one of the most notable parts of the British Empire in their future (Villalon). Therefore, the Hundred Years War has found itself a pivotal place in history and worthy of study, thus bringing into question the true cause of the end of the
Law could no longer be changed or reinvented on the spot by members of government for their own benefit. Now, it could only prohibit actions which were hurtful to society. These new concepts brought fourth during the revolution would greatly influence not just France, but the entirety of Europe and its direction in the decades to come. Perhaps the most important of these new concepts was Nationalism which encompassed the ideas of pride in one’s nation, fair, nonbiased law, comradery, and a still skewed, but, better version of equality. Nationalism would also bring fourth the concept of legitimate violence which was essentially the thought that war was ok and murder was not. This important concept would be the driving force behind the Napoleonic Wars to come. While the concept of nationalism was most definitely progressive, highly influential, and constructed of good intentions and values it did not always play out as such in soldiers and citizens daily lives during the revolution. Far too often nationalism turned away from its pure ideals and instead lead to prejudice in all types of different people, which was not its conceptual
The French Revolution (1789-1814) was a period that affected the outcome of world history tremendously. This is considered a major turning point in European history which has led to dramatic changes in France and other regions of the world. Various social and political issues led to the start of the revolution. Politically, France suffered under the rule of Louis XVI, who ruled by absolute monarchy. Many people had their natural rights renounced and weren’t able to have a political voice. Socially, France had divided its population within 3 estates (classes). French citizens took it upon themselves to remodel their country 's’ political structure. The French Revolution had encountered both positive and negative effects. However, many Europeans viewed the Revolution as much more than just a bloody massacre. The French Revolution was used to demonstrate new ideology that would emphasize the principles of liberty and equality throughout Europe.
In 1337, war broke between France and England, was known as the Hundred Year’s War. Basically, it was a disagreement over who had the rights to land, and a dispute over the succession to the French throne and economic conflicts. At the end of Hundred Year’s War, some of the English nobility brought musicians with which increased the number of English performers and composers.
The French Revolution was a dreadful and vicious time in the history of France. Many people have lost their lives with all the chaotic and harshness behind the absolute monarchy. Suffering with economic downfall increased r of taxes that benefited with wars with other countries. Political stand point also played a role, with nobles and clergy appointed by the king obtaining power over the citizens of France. With the own citizen desire to form a sovereignty state without a ruler, and the country should be govern by its citizen. It became a huge problem with France effecting politically, socially, and economically. However, England was focusing on economic stability then political, England was becoming a huge capital with trading routes with
One of the longest wars in history, the Hundred Years War is a bloodthirsty period of battle between England and France. The war was not limited to England and France; Scotland, a French ally battled against England. It was further complicated by a civil war in France from 1407 to 1435 between the Burgundians and Armagnacs, noble fractions in France. The English and French both supported different sides of the civil war in Spain, which prolonged the Hundred Year War. It is actually 116 years in length, despite what its name suggests. The cause of the war was both territorial and political.